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«Final Report of the Cold Compost Project Prepared by The Cornell Waste Management Institute Ithaca, NY Ellen Z. Harrison Director May 2004 Cold ...»

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Forshell, L.P. and I. Ekesbo. (1993) Survival of Salmonellas in composted and not composted solid animal manures. J. Vet. Med. – Series B 40:654-658.

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Graft-Hanson, J.A., E.C. Naber, J.F. Stephens, and O.C. Thompson. (1990) The microbiology and safety of cage layer manure rapidly composted in a closed system with various carbon sources. Agricultural and Food Processing Waste Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes. Dec. 17-18, Chicago, pp 25-32.

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Mote, C.R., B.L. Emerton, and J.S. Allison. (1988) Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1676

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Cornell Waste Management InstituteCold Compost Project – Final Report

ODEQ. (2001). Research Concerning Human Pathogens and Environmental Issues Related to Composting of Non-Green Feedstocks. E & A Environmental Consultants, Inc.

Prescott, L.M, J.P. Harley, and D.A. Klein. (1996) Microbiology, Third Edition. Times Mirror Higher Education Group, Inc. Dubuque, IA.

Richard, Thomas L. and Nancy M. Dickson. (1989) Municipal Yard Waste Composting: An Operator’s Guide. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Cooperative Extension.

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Slawon, J., B. Trawinska, W.H. Bis, and D.B. Nowakowicz. (1998) Effects of composts containing fox faeces on the hygienic state of radish and its yield. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska., Section EE-Zootechnica 16:297-304.

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Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX A – Survey Sample and Summary of Results

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6. How is the waste composted?

a. Compost pockets (buried) b. Static piles (mounds, wire mesh bins, snow fence bins, cinder block bins, wooden bins, plastic bins) c. Turned pile (any of the above mentioned, including garbage cans) d. Layered method e. Passively aerated (including hot boxes) g. Vermicomposting h. Other

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23. Where do you get your information on composting methods? Compost use?

Interview’s Name Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report Small-scale Composting Survey Results A total of 19 home compost sites were part of this project. Of those only 12 responded to the survey included as part of this appendix.

Out of 13 respondants:

Source of Organic Material 8 report composting household sources of organics.

2 report composting school sources of organics.

2 report composting business sources of organics.

3 report compost other sources of organics.

Households Served 6 compost sites serve a single household.

2 compost sites serve from 2 to 5 households.

2 compost sites serve more than 5 households.

Types of Composted Materials 12 sites add pre-consumer food waste to their compost piles.

12 sites add post-consumer food waste to their compost piles.

9 sites add yard waste to their compost piles.

6 compost sites are bulked with wood chips.

2 compost sites are bulked with saw dust.

1 compost site is bulked with newspaper.

4 compost sites bulk with straw.

6 compost sites bulk with garden residuals.

8 compost sites bulk with leaves.

2 compost sites add meat scrap.

Turning Frequency and Turning Method 6 compost sites are never turned.

6 sites use a layering compost method.

2 sites use passive aeration as a compost method.

1 site uses a turning unit as a compost method.

1 compost site turns daily 1 compost site turns weekly 1 compost site turns monthly 2 compost sites turn every 4 months.

3 compost sites turn once a year.

1 compost site turns less than once a year 10 compost sites cover food scraps after addition.

Compost Production 2 sites produce compost in less than 6 months.

5 sites produce compost in 6 to 12 months.

4 sites produce compost in 12 to 18 months.

1 site produces compost in 18+ months.

11 composters use visual appearance to determine if compost is finished.

3 composters use temperature to determine if compost is finished.

2 composters use moisture content to determine if compost is finished.

7 composters use age to determine if compost is finished.

6 composters use color to determine if compost is finished.

4 composters use other methods to determine if compost is finished.

1 composter adds to the compost pile as needed.

3 composters add to their pile daily.

Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report 8 composters add to their pile more than once a week.

1 compost adds to the compost pile weekly.

9 compost sites place scraps on top of the pile.

4 sites mix scraps into the pile.

Compost Pile Dimensions Compost dimensions provided by respondees range from 3 – 5 ft in height, 3 – 6 feet in width, and 3 – 20 ft in length.

Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX B – Sampling Protocol for Compost Piles Diagram obtained from Woods End Research Laboratory, Inc. 2004 Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX C – Physical Data

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18 1 2 1/23/2002 18 2 2 1/23/2002 18 3 2 1/23/2002 19 1 2 1/29/2002 19 2 2 1/29/2002 19 3 2 1/29/2002 20 1 2 2/12/2002 20 2 2 2/12/2002 20 3 2 2/12/2002 Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX E – Between Lab ANOVA Results of Microbial Concentrations

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Dependent Variable: CLOST1 Univariate Analysis of Variance Warnings Dependent Variable: SALM1 The following factors or covariates are not used in the model: OM, CN_RATIO, TKN, MMHOS, SLDS Dependent Variable: FECCOL1 a Design: Intercept+CN_RATIO * PH * OM+CN_RATIO * SLDS * OM+CN_RATIO * DNS * OM+CN_RATIO * PH * SLDS+CN_RATIO * PH * DNS+PH * SLDS * OM+SLDS * DNS * OM+PH * DNS * OM Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX G – Independent Samples t-tests Microbes vs. Management Practices

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Analysis #4b - Independent Samples t-Test of WEL log (fec col) Data Using Addition of Meat Scrap as the Grouping Variable Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report

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Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report APPENDIX H – Small Scale Guidance Fact Sheet Cornell Waste Management Institute Cold Compost Project – Final Report Cornell Waste Management Institute



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