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The datalogger works under a specific Campbell Scientific operating system and is controlled by the METSTAT datalogger program for meteorological stations. These programs are specifically created by the project GCP/INT/752/ ITA – Nile Basin Water Resources for the sensor configuration and data requirements in the network established by the project. The datalogger program has been tested extensively by the project specialists, proved to work properly and require no further user intervention.
As indicated in paragraph 2.2, data is transferred from datalogger to PC with help of the SM4M/SM192 storage module. These modules use a specific Campbell Scientific data format, which is highly condensed in order to make optimal use of its memory.
Once the observed data are downloaded to the storage module, the next steps are performed by using PC208W Datalogger Support Software. This is a special software package developed by Campbell Scientific for communication between datalogger and PC. It consists of 8 modules of which only two are of interest for handling meteorological data measured in the network established by the project in the Nile Basin.
The StgModule component of the software retrieves files from the SM4M or SM192 Storage Module into ASCII files on PC without any modification of the original data structure and sequence stored in the storage module.
The Report component, often referred to as Split, is used to split, restructure and separate these ASCII files according to the required file/table structure of the user, transfer the dates from Julian format to corresponding months and days, and store the resulting data groups into a comma separated ASCII file. The latter format is preferred for subsequent import of external data into MS Access.
Final data processing is accomplished by using MS Access database software package through several predefined database tables and queries; the tables and queries have been specifically tailored for final processing of meteorological data observed in the network established by the project. Lastly, the processed data are appended and finally stored into the appropriate tables in the MS Access based Nile Basin Database.
2.4 Comprehensive Data Trajectory In order to arrive at a complete understanding of interconnections between the various hardware and software elements that play a role in the data flow, table 1 presents a comprehensive overview of the entire data trajectory
- from initial measurement to final dissemination. It shows the place and function of the respective hardware and software items and their interrelation. Furthermore, it lists in a sequential order all necessary user actions.
All the actions described in table 1 are covered in this manual except for those indicated under the 1, 2 and 8. These three actions are included into the table for user’s benefit of having better insight into the whole data trajectory – starting from its onsite measurement by a sensor and ending up with the use of stored data for various types of water resources analysis, studies and modeling. The procedures concerned with actions 1 and 2 are covered in the respective operation and installation manuals specifically concerned with Automatic Weather Stations established within the project. The action refers to a broad range of applications in water resources analysis and modeling which are described elsewhere, including a series of training notes for data processing and analysis within the georeferenced database as well as The Nile Basin Decision Support Tool manuals and software packages developed under the project.
Consequently, as already indicated in paragraph 1.1, this manual covers in detail the actions 3 to 7 given in table 1.
Installation of the remaining Hardware and Software
3.1 Installation of SC532A Interface Provided a PC has already been set up successfully, only one hardware item remains to be installed: the SC532A Interface. The function of this interface is to connect IBM compatible computers to the SM4M or SM192 storage module and convert their contents into RS232 format, or more precisely into a standard RS232 data transfer protocol, which is well understood by any IBM compatible personal computer.
In case the short haul modems are used for on line data collection, the SC932 Interface is connected permanently and therefore the use of SC532 Interface should be avoided.
The SC532A has a 9-pin connector for linkage with the storage module and uses a 9-pin connector to connect the interface to a 9-pin serial port at the PC. The SC532A interface is powered by an AC adapter. Both the 9-pin female connecting ends of the SC532A interface are identical therefore care should be taken that its “PC” labeled end should be connected to the serial port at the PC and that the “PERIPHERAL” labeled end is connected to the SM4M storage module.
Installation of the SC532A Interface is a straight forward process. Connect the SC532A to PC using the supplied ‘9 to 9 pin’ computer cable. The 9-pin female end of the cable should be connected to the PC’s serial port 1 or 2, while the other 9-pin male end of the cable is to be plugged into the SC532A.
Connect the other 9-pin female end of the SC532A interface to the SM4M Storage Module using the blue, specific Campbell Scientific SC12 storage module cable.
Since the SC532 Interface runs on 110V, use a 220 - 110 transformer between mains and the SC532A while in East Africa.
All hardware components are now installed. Make sure power is supplied to the SC532.
Note: The old model SC532 Interface has 25-pin connector while the other end has a 9-pin connector and therefore using a 25 to 9-pin computer cable. This information is for the users in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
3.2 Installation of PC208W Datalogger Support Software PC208W 3.3 Datalogger Support Software requires Windows 95 or higher. There needs to be at least 10Mb of free hard disk space for software installation.
Insert the PC208W CD in drive D. It will install automatically by following the instructions on the screen. Otherwise in Windows 95 (or above), select RUN from the Start button. Type in A:\SETUP and click the OK button. Follow the instructions given on the screen.
It is recommended to use the following Working Directory name: C:/CAMPBELL/PC208W.
Recommended Directory Structure
4.1 General For standardization and instruction purposes, this chapter proposes a Recommended Folder (Directory) Structure.
The user is free to modify this if another system would better suits his or her particular computer organization.
However, the instructions presented in this manual are based on the proposed structure. Modification of it will require corresponding adjustment of commands concerning file locations.
4.2 PC208W Files Figure 3 presents the Recommended Directory Structure for all files related to PC208W Datalogger Support Software. A subdivision has been made between the PC208W program files and the ones actually used in the data processing, the ‘work’ files.
Figure 3: Recommended Directory Structure for PC208W and related ‘work’ files.
The above Folder (Directory Structure required the creation of a main folder called CAMPBELL on the C drive. The Campbell Folder consists of two sub-folders named FILES and PC208W. The datalogger support software PC208W should be installed in the latter one, see paragraph 3.2.
The FILES folder is sub-divided into four folders: INPUT, OUTPUT, PARAMETER and BACKUP.
The INPUT sub-folder is destined for all data files retrieved from the SM4M/SM192 storage module or directly from the datalogger using short haul modems. By default these files are given a DAT extension.
The OUTPUT sub-folder is allocated for all processed, comma separated ASCII files, with TXT extension. They result from the separation and file restructuring exercise in Report (a.k.a. Split).
The PARAMETR sub-folder is used to store all predefined Split files, having a PAR extension.
The BACKUP sub-folder is used to temporarily store the files once they have been converted and processed in MS Access. Use of the above mentioned files is discussed in more detail in chapter 5. The proposed structure is illustrated in the following Windows Explorer screen.
*For the creation of the various folders, use the appropriate Windows Explorer commands.
4.3 MS Access Database Files Figure 4 illustrates the required Folder (Directory) Structure for further processing of data in MS Access and final storage of processed data files into the NBD in database standard format. This format can, later on, be changed once a final structure for the Nile Basin Database has been developed.
Figure 4: Required Folder (Directory) Structure for all MS Access database files.
For this purpose it is required to create a main database folder called MyDbase on the C drive. This folder should consist of two sub-folders called NBD and NBD NEW DATA. The former will be used to store the Nile Basin Database files, while the latter is basically planned to contain temporary data files imported from the C:/Campbell/Files/ Output folder and append queries; the imported dta files and append queries are used for further data processing in MS Access, prior to final storage of processed data records into the NBD data tables in standard data format.
For the creation of the proposed directory structure, use the appropriate Windows Explorer commands. Once
more, the structure is illustrated below as displayed on the Windows Explorer screen:
PC208W Datalogger Support Software
5.1 Introduction PC208W Datalogger Support Software is a Windows based software package specifically developed by Campbell Scientific for communication between datalogger and PC. It consists of a help module and 7 independent datalogger support components. Among them are also the utilities for setting up a network of PC connected stations and on-line datalogger communication. Depending on the conditions and requirements these utilities will not be used in certain cases whereas in other cases these may be used wherever feasible in the Basin. For example the Project may consider the option of direct on-line communication with the stations using short haul modems or cellular mobile communications.
Smooth flow of data from datalogger to Nile Basin Database is accomplished with the help of the following three PC208W utilities: Connect, StgModule and Report. The first and second serve to transfer raw data files either directly from the datalogger to the PC via short haul modems or then from storage module to PC, while the second is used to separate the various meteorological variables from raw batch data transferred from the datalogger or storage module into PC, and re-arrange their data structure.
These software utilities will be discussed in the paragraphs given below. However, the text that follows does not cover all aspects of the two PC208W software utilities. Only the subjects which are considered important and essential in the data downloading process are discussed. The user is referred to the respective Campbell Scientific Instruction Manuals, as well as the on-line help, in case of need for more information. The use of “Connect” utility is still under experiment at the Project office and will be included in the manual later on.
5.2 StgModule Component
5.2.1 Introduction Due to recent rapid developments in the mobile/cellular telecommunications in most of the African countries, it has become feasible to establish on-line communication between a datalogger and a PC. The Project experts are exploring ways for making it possible to transfer on-line digital data from a remotely stationed datalogger to the PC using a cellular communication facility. Apart from this, the project has also opted for the portable SM4M or SM192 Storage Module to transfer the accumulated raw data from the logger’s RAM to personal computer. This storage device can contain up to almost 400,000 data values as well as a maximum of 8 datalogger programs. Communication between storage module and PC is enabled through the StgModule software, discussed in this paragraph.
5.2.2 Connecting Storage Module to PC This paragraph presents the instructions for establishing communication between SM4M or SM192 and PC.
Step A1: Connect the SM4M/SM192 Storage Module to the SC532A Interface using the blue SC12 cable.
Step A2: Make sure the SC532A Interface is powered.
Step A3: Double click the PC208W Datalogger Support Software Icon, presented below.
The following toolbar appears:
Step A4: Click the StgModule tab. A window alike the one presented below shows up.
The menu-bar contains five different items: File, Options, Data, Tools and Help. Just beneath this line 4 different tabs are found, named CSM1/MCR1, SM192/SM716, PCCard and SM4M/SM16M, each dealing with a different storage medium. Since the Nile Basin Monitoring Network is either equipped with the SM4M or SM192 unit, click the required SM192/SM716 or SM4M/SM16M tab at the top-mid of the screen to activate its specific communication software. Disregard the other three tabs.
Step A5: Click the SM4M/SM16M or SM192/SM716 tab at the top-mid of the SMS window.
The resulting window is divided into two halves: a status box on the right and a task specific sub- screen on the left.
At the bottom-left of the latter, four different tabs are found: Setup, Programs, Data and Erase.
Step A6: Click the tab labeled ‘Setup’ to select the appropriate communication settings. The below screen appears.
Step A7: Select the COM Port settings corresponding to the serial port used by the “9 to 9 pin” computer cable connecting the SC532A Interface (see paragraph 3.1). In most cases this will be either COM1 or COM2.
Step A8: Set Baud Rate at 19200. This is a measure of the communication speed between PC and Storage Module. In case frequent communication problems are experienced, lower the Baud Rate and see if this solves the problem.
Step A9: Click the “Connect” button to connect SM4M or SM192 to PC.