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«Winchester, UK Washington, USA First published by Zero Books, 2012 Zero Books is an imprint of John Hunt Publishing Ltd., Laurel House, Station ...»

-- [ Page 71 ] --

Among the Allies, the Soviet Union has been most pointedly exposed for its oppressive record in Eastern Europe – at least it has in western histories and reporting. With the breakup of the Soviet Union, though, and the founding of the Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States has seen a much more open attitude to historical scholarship. For some, the rehabilitation of the wartime record of the Baltic nationalists who collaborated with Germany is a bridge too far. But on the whole the opening up of the Soviet Union’s wartime record to question has been a positive experience.

The malleable history of the Second World War

The first draft of the history of the Second World War was, understandably, the history from the point of view of the victors. It is not that we have an especial need to hear the version of the vanquished Axis leaders. Rather, the victors’ account itself has ideological rigidities of its own. The Allies’ cause has been dressed up in lots of clothes - the People’s War, the war to liberate Europe, the war against Fascism and Racism. But these different intellectual frameworks arise out of a political coalition mobilised to prosecute the war, one that in its different ways also constructed the peace. The first great breach in the consensus about the meaning of the Second World War came about because of the international breach in that consensus, the Cold War between the former Allies, The USSR on the one hand, and America and Britain on the other. It has suffered since from further tensions within the Western Alliance, and from the fragmentation of the domestic coalition between organised labour, business and the state that was galvanised into supporting the war.

As the postwar consensus depleted, so did the compelling character of the mainstream account of the war lose its definitive character. It was not that the history of the Second World War became less important. On the contrary, it seems to have become more important. But that does not disguise the fact that there are now more and more competing accounts of the war, as different fragments of the wartime coalition lay claim to the mantle of the war, and in doing so harden up competing accounts of the war. More than that, the mismatch between the official version of the war and present-day needs illuminates new aspects of the war, such as the record of Allied atrocities, or the distinctive experience of the war in the colonies.

All of this new material deepens our understanding, and at least makes possible a new synthesis of different accounts.

Footnotes

1. The War in the Factories

1. Mark Mazower, Dark Continent, London, Vintage, 2000 p 130

2. Alec Nove, An Economic History of the USSR, 1982, p 279

3. Rajani Palme Dutt, World Politics, London, Left Book Club, 1936, p 15

4. Thomas Fleming, The New Dealers’ War, New York, Basic, 2001, p 124

5. Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 641

6. Paul Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, London, Fontana, 1988, p 419, 455

7. David Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, New York, WW Norton, 1980, p 92

8. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p 261 Andrew Gordon, Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan, Harvard University Asia Centre, 9.

1988, p 258, 268

10. Angus Calder, The People’s War, London, Panther, 1971, p 272-3

11. W.B. Sutch, Workers and the War Effort, Wellington, c. 1944, p 46-7

12. Fleming, The New Dealers War, p 248 Stephen Kotkin, World War Two and Labour: a lost cause? International Labor and 13.

Working-Class History 2000 (58): 181-191, p 186 John Barber and Mark Harrison, The Soviet Home Front 1941-1945, Longman, London, 14.

1991 p 61-2

15. Barber and Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, p 164

16. Fleming, The New Dealers’ War, p 82

17. Calder, The People’s War, p 133, 456

18. W.B. Sutch, Workers and the War Effort, Wellington, c. 1944, p 17

19. Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, p 86-8

20. Gabriel Kolko, A Century of War, New York, The New Press, 1994, p 242

21. Edward Tannenbaum, Fascism in Italy, London, Allen Lane, 1972, 120

22. Calder, People’s War, 392 Nelson Lichtenstein, Labor’s War at Home, Cambridge University Press, 1987, p 96-7;

23.

Fleming, The New Dealer’s War, p 153

24. Chicago Daily Tribune, 14 December 1940

25. Robert Paxton, Vichy France, Columbia University Press, 1982, p 376 Output increases that would later equip the German army, Alan Clinton, Jean Moulin, 26.

Plagrave, 2002, p 73

27. Sir John Hammerton, The Second Great War, London, Waverley, Vol II, p 738 On 13 December 1939, quoted in Living Marxism, Spring 1940, vol V, no 1, Spring 28.

1940, p 14

29. W.B. Sutch, Workers and the War Effort, Wellington, c. 1944

30. International Communist Correspondence, Vol. III, No 1, January 1937, p 22

31. Schoenbaum, p 97

32. Calder, p 405

33. John Costello, Love, Sex and War, London, Pan, 1986, p 207

34. Gordon, Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan, p 314

35. Harrison and Barber, The Soviet Home Front, 1941-45, London, 1991, p 61, 163 Miller and Cornford, American Labor in the Era of World War II, Westport, Praeger, 36.

1995, p 94

37. Morley and Nunn, Arts and the Holocaust, East Renfrewshire, 2005, p 110





38. Robert Black, Fascism in Germany, London, Steyne, 1975, p 989

39. Hugh Rockoff in Harrison, ed., The Economics of World War Two, 1998, p 94 Mark Harrison (ed), The Economics of World War Two, Cambridge University Press, 40.

1998, p 14

41. Werner Abelshauser, in Harrison, The Economics of World War Two, 161

42. Calder, 505

43. Kotkin, A Lost Cause?, p 186

44. Barber and Harrison, The Soviet Home Front 1941-45, p 116 Barber and Harrison, The Soviet Home Front 1941-45, p 118, quoting expatriate Victor 45.

Kravchenko

46. James Bacque, Crimes and Mercies, London, Little, Brown and Company, 1997, p 61

47. Miller and Cornford, American Labor in the Era of WWII, 1995, p 2-3

48. Costello, Love, Sex and War, p 211

49. Costello, Love, Sex and War, p 197

50. Calder, p 386

51. Costello, p 215

52. Kotkin, A Lost Cause?, p 184 Richard Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, London, Penguin, 2003, p 348, 355Alan Milward, The German Economy at War,London, Athlone, 1965 Edward R. Tannenbaum, Fascism in Italy, Society and Culture 1922-1945, London, 55.

Allen Lane, 1973, p 102, 120, 122, 125 Gordon, Labor Relations in Japan, 299; Sanpo revisited, Tetsuji Okazaki, Centre for 56.

International Research on the Japanese Economy Discussion Paper, June 2005 Presidential Address, July 1940, in Nina Fishman, The British Communist Party and the 57.

Trade Unions, 1933-1945, Aldershot, Scolar Press, 1995, p 263 Fishman, The British Communist Party and the Trade Unions, p 298 - the speech was 58.

written by C.P theoretician Rajani Palme Dutt

59. Art Preis, Labor’s Giant Step, New York, Pioneer Press, 1964, p 114-7

60. Preis, Labor’s Giant Step, p 131 61. ‘Britain’s reasons for fighting’, New York Times, 8 September 1940

62. Preis, Labour’s Giant Step, p 154 Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the United States of America, Harmondsworth, 63.

Penguin, 1985, p 584-6

64. Lichtenstein, Labor’s War at Home, 89

2. Rationing

1. Daniel Guerin, Fascism and Big Business, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1983, p 194-5

2. Robert Black, Fascism in Germany, London, Steyne, 1975, p 989

3. Tim Mason, Social Policy in the Third Reich, Oxford, Berg, 1993, p 39

4. David Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, New York, WW Norton, 1980, p 98

5. Angus Calder, The People’s War, London, Panther, 1971, p 405 Andrew Gordon, Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan, Harvard University Asia Centre, 6.

1988, p 285

7. Vera Zamagni, The Economic History of Italy, Oxford University Press, 1997, p 309 Vera Zamagni, ‘Losing the war’, in Harrison, The Economy of World War Two, 179, p 8.

9. Robert Paxton Vichy France, New York, Columbia U.P. 1982, p 376

10. Martin Glabermann, Wartime Strikes, Bewick, Detroit, 1980, p 41

11. Nelson Lichtenstein, Labor’s War at Home, Cambridge University Press, 1987, p 112-3

12. Hugh Rockoff in Mark Harrison, The Economics of World War Two, p 93

13. Calder, The People’s War, p 275

14. Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, p 126

15. Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 353 in Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain 1937-1946, London, Macmillan, 16.

2001, p 53

17. 16 December 1939, quoted in Living Marxism, Spring 1940, vol V, no 1, p 15

18. 28 November, 1939, quoted in Living Marxism, Spring 1940, vol V, no 1, p 16

19. Angus Calder, The People’s War, Panther, 1971, p 445 John Carey, reviewing Matthew Sweet’s West End Front, The Sunday Times, Culture 20.

Section, 30 October 2011, p 47

21. Sir John Hammerton, The Second Great War, Vol II, Amalgamated Press, p 543 Quoted in Patricia Cockburn, The Years of the Week, London, Comedia, 1985, p 272, 22.

23. Lichtenstein, Labor’s War at Home, p 112

24. Calder, The People’s War, p 410-11

25. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p 354

26. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p 356

27. Calder, The People’s War, p 318

28. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p 361, 541

29. Patricia Meehan, Strange Enemy People, London, Peter Owen, 2001, p 248, 253

30. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p 542, 366 Akira Hara, in Mark Harrison (ed), The Economics of World War Two, Cambridge 31.

University Press, 1998, p 255-6

32. Barber and Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, 1941-45, London, Longman, 1991, p 79

33. Fortune, December 1942

34. Schoenbaum, Hitler’s Social Revolution, p 105-7

35. Franz Neumann, European Trade Unionism and Politics, New York, 1936, p.42

36. Gordon, Labor Relations in Japan, p 256 G. Deborin, Secrets of the Second World War, Moscow, Progress Publishers, 1971, p 37.

38. Lichtenstein, Labor’s War at Home, p 88 Abelshauser, in Harrison, in Mark Harrison (ed) The Economics of World War Two, p 39.

40. Calder, The People’s War, p 486 Stephen Kotkin, World War Two and Labour: a lost cause? International Labor and 41.

Working-Class History 2000 (58): 181-191, p 186 John Barber and Mark Harrison, The Soviet Home Front. 1941-45, Longman, London, 42.

1991, p 135

43. David Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, Oxford University Press, 1999, p 628

3. Military Industrial Complex

Einzig, The Economics of Re-armament, 1934, quoted in R Palme Dutt, World Politics, 1.

London, Left Book Club, 1936, p 110-1 Keynes, The Means to Prosperity, 1934, quoted in R Palme Dutt, World Politics, 2.

London, Left Book Club, p 110

3. 29 July 1935, in R Palme Dutt, World Politics, London, Left Book Club, p 112 Alfred Sohn-Rethel, The Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism, London, 4.

Free association, 1987, p 81

5. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 571, 109

6. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 340-1

7. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 126

8. Daniel Guerin, Fascism and Big Business, New York, Monad, 1983, p 244

9. Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 571

10. Jacques Pauwels, The Myth of the Good War, Toronto, James Lorimer, 2002, p 30-32

11. Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 133

12. Jean Monnet, Memoirs, Garden City, Doubleday 1978, p 151

13. Jean Monnet, Memoirs, Garden City, Doubleday 1978, p 135

14. Paul Mattick, Economics, Politics and the Age of Inflation, London, Merlin, 1978, p 139

15. Jacques Pauwels, The Myth of the Good War, Toronto, James Lorimer, 2002, p 54 Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the United States of America, Harmondsworth, 16.

Penguin, 1985, p 584-6

17. David Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, Oxford University Press, 1999, p 621

18. Kolko, Main Currents in American History, New York, Pantheon, 1984, p 310 Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the United States of America, Harmondsworth, 19.

Penguin, 1985, p 585

20. Economist, 22 April 1939

21. Times 11 March 1937, in Skidelsky, Keynes, Vol. III, Lodnon, Macmillan, 2000, p 21 Maclaine, Ministry of Morale: Home Front Morale and the Ministry of Information in 22.

World War II, London, George Allen and Unwin, 1979, p 149

23. Lizzie Collingham. The Taste of War, London, Allen Lane, 2011, p 68

24. Overy, Why the Allies Won, London, Pimlico, 1995, p 30

25. Mazower, Dark Continent, 159, 210

26. Collingham, The Taste of War, London, Allen Lane, 2011, p 242

27. Thomas Fleming, The New Dealer’s War, New York, Basic Books, p 361

28. John Dower, Japan in War and Peace, New York, The New Press, 1993, p 109

29. Robert Black, Fascism in Germany, London Steyne, 1975, Vol II, p 993 Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, David M. Katzman, A people and a

30. nation: a history of the United States. Since 1865, Cengage Learning, 2009 Volume 2, Chapter 27, p 712

31. Fred Westacott, Shaking the Chains, Tupton, Joe Clark, 2002, p 128

32. Lizzie Collingham, The Taste of War, London, Allen Lane, 2011, p 132 Tooze, Wages of Destruction, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p 564-5. Tooze, who points out the change in pricing, argues with the ‘story-line’ that German industry was 33.

protected by ‘costs plus’, but it is not obvious what real difference the guaranteed profits system makes.

Time, July 19, 1943 34.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,777836,00.html#ixzz1Rik29RzS Fenner Brockway and Frederic Mullally, Death Pays a Dividend, London, Victor 35.

Gollancz, p 124-30

36. Jacques Pauwels, The Myth of the Good War, James Lorimer, Toronto, 2002, p 71

37. David Kennedy, Freedom From Fear, Oxford University Press, 1999, p 622 Report of 18 December 1943, quoted in Art Preis, Labour’s Giant Step, New York, 38.

Pioneer, 1964, p 203 Fenner Brockway and Frederic Mullally, Death Pays a Dividend, London, Victor 39.

Gollancz, p 120

40. R. Palme Dutt, Britain’s Crisis of Empire, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1949, 43, 45



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