WWW.DIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |

«1. Introduction Over the last twenty years, conservation has become a central analytical focus in the social sciences. This review article brings ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Godoy 2001; Peters 1994). This integration does not happen without economic, infrastructural and cultural transformations (Castells 1996; Hannerz 1996).

The (bourgeois/elite) idealization of nature as a place untouched by the human hand (Braun and Castree 1998; Cronon 1996) adds to nature a veneer of authenticity (Roigé and Frigolé 2011) that has an

–  –  –

interesting collateral effect. Protection often goes hand in hand with restoration efforts that attempt to simulate a pre-human nature. Protected areas, to different degrees, attempt to replicate an idealized nature (Peet and Watts 1996; Knight 2006) and managers seek to restore or recreate ideal natures (Barrett and White 2001; Castree 1995; Howell et al. 2011). Grounded in an Arcadian imaginary, restoration, reforestation, and related conservation projects are often much more about mimicking ideals (Auerbach 2004 [1942];

Baudrillard 1998; Vaccaro and Beltran 2009) than about managing real environmental change.

4. Conclusion In their early work, political ecologists referred to 'natural resources' rather than 'nature' (Bryant and Bailey 1997). The goal was to avoid conceptual essentialisms and to bring economy and politics into the discussion: to create a political economy of the environment (Wolf 1972). The analysis of the politicization and commoditization of nature has been a common and relevant approach for the understanding of how the extractive and transformative industries operate. For centuries the elites of different societies and regimes acknowledged and used the 'leisure potential' of nature (Darby 2000). It was only during the modernization of Western societies, with the unfolding of the nation state and the capitalist mass market (Polanyi 1944), that nature was integrated definitively into the services sector via the creation of a large conservation apparatus (Peet and Watts 1996). This process resulted in an institutionalization (politics), commoditization (economy), and homogenization (culture) of the relationship between nature and society. A political economy of nature, of conservation, was created.

To reflect on this socialization of nature as an entity worth protecting, this article summarized two important elements of the literature on the political ecology of conservation: its historical chronologies and its conceptual genealogies. The rather extensive bibliography that accompanies this piece constitutes a fourth quasi-section. It attempts to offer an extensive dataset of entries associated with the political ecology of conservation and to concepts used by the social sciences analyzing conservation. This bibliographical task is so vast that we cannot claim to have included everything. We have, however, incorporated enough to give a good idea of the field for scholars and students alike.

The second section has two goals. The first goal is to offer a summary chronology of the different types of conservation that have been developed during the modern era: fortress, participatory, and neoliberal conservation. This three stage sequence is, of course, a construct. Although the three types emerged in historical succession, none of them disappears when the others emerge. Rather they overlap or cohabit in different localities in different periods, with an emphasis on one or the other depending on the vagaries of management in that particular period. The second goal of this chronological section is to show the similarities between the type of conservation practiced and the society that implements it. The fortress conservation model emerges in a moment in which colonialism, with remote authoritarian institutional control, is dominant. The neoliberal conservationist model does not appear until the Reagan-Thatcher period achieved its current mature form and became the hegemonic international political framework.

The third section focuses on the intellectual genealogies of some of the most relevant concepts needed in discussing the architecture of conservation. To achieve this we subdivided this section into three: state, market, and culture. In the subsection devoted to the state we discussed, amongst many others, ideas such as governmentality, territoriality, bureaucracy, legitimacy, knowledge, power, environmentality, state-making, and resistance. In the subsection devoted to the capitalist market we connected the elements introduced in the previous section to others including the leisure class, the leisure economy, mass production, market integration, networks, Fordism, hyper-consumption, commoditization, and the moral economy. We finished by mapping cultural shifts: identifying hypermodernity, postmaterialistic values, desire, spectacle, patrimonialization, heritage, collective identity, taste, and globalization.

We have attempted to bring together a large group of concepts and authors coming from different fields of social sciences and humanities that are not often put together on the same page. The goal is to highlight the connections that exist between them in their relation to the general field of conservation, identifying the intellectual network created by several generations of social scientists. It must be acknowledged that this literature review of political ecology and conservation does not include a survey of the gray literature comprising on-the-ground evaluation reports from the conservation management organizations. A significant percentage of these reports are produced by social scientists too. This is a daunting task, necessary to complete the picture of the relationship between social sciences and the conservation world, but that deserves a full article for itself.





In the last couple of decades, then, critical studies of conservation have blossomed. They have succeeded in establishing a dialogue with ecology and conservation biology, so that many of the most relevant concepts used by the social sciences and humanities are now shared. However, this intellectual production is not having a similar influence on conservation policies, design, and management in the field.

Most conservation practitioners have been unable to address the political ecology critique. Although conservationist discourses have integrated 'social concerns' to some extent, the everyday reality of

–  –  –

conservation policies is often marked by an antagonistic interaction between those policies and local people.

Critical political ecology has much to contribute to the practice, as well as the theory, of environmental conservation. It is a difficult task, one still pending, to convince biologists and politicians that these critiques are constructive and have the potential to improve local wellbeing and environmental conservation. To realize this potential two things must happen: first, the conservationist world must be more receptive to the obvious fact that ecology and society cannot be understood or managed independently, and that governance mechanisms have political, social, and ecological consequences that might question or improve the long term viability of public policy. Secondly, political ecology scholars must make an effort to make our discourses, ideas, and contributions available to people who speak other academic and non-academic dialects and hold different moral economies. Ironically, we have not being so good at doing that.

References Adams, W.M. and J. Hutton. 2007. People, parks and poverty: political ecology and biodiversity conservation. Conservation and Society 5 (2): 147-183.

Agrawal, A. 1996. Greener pastures: politics, markets and community among a migrant pastoral people.

Durham: Duke University Press.

Agrawal, A. 2005. Environmentality: technologies of government and the making of subjects. Durham: Duke University Press.

Agrawal, A. and K. Redford. 2009. Conservation and displacement: an overview. Conservation and Society 7: 1-10.

Anderson, B. 1983. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York:

Verso.

Anderson, D. and E. Berglund, (eds.) 2003. Ethnographies of conservation: environmentalism and the distribution of privilege. New York: Berghahn Books.

Appadurai, A. 1996. Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Argyrou, V. 2005. The logic of environmentalism: anthropology, ecology and postcoloniality. New York: Berghahn Books.

Arnold, D. 1996. The problem of nature: environment, culture, and European expansion. Oxford: Blackwell.

Arsel, M. and B. Büscher. 2012. NatureTM Inc.: changes and continuities in neoliberal conservation and market-based environmental policy. Development and Change 43 (1): 53-78.

Auerbach, E. 2003 [1942] Mimesis: the representation of reality in Western literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Augé, M. 1999. An anthropology for contemporaneous worlds. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Balée, W. 2006. The research program of historical ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 75-98.

Barrett, L. and D. White. 2001. The reconstruction of nature: postmodern ecology and the Kissimmee River Restoration Project. Critical Studies 22: 229-250.

Batisse, M. 1982. The biosphere reserve: a tool for environmental conservation and management.

Environmental Conservation 9(2): 101-112.

Baudrillard, J. 1994. Simulacra and simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Baudrillard, J. 1998. Consumer society: myths and structures. London: Sage.

Bell, D. 1973. The coming of the post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.

Beltran, O. 2012. La naturaleza en venta. Imágenes culturales y mercado en el turismo amazónico del Sur del Perú. In Valcuende, J. M. (ed.) Amazonía. Viajeros, turistas y poblaciones indígenas. Tenerife: Pasos.

Pp 123-154.

Bergin, A. 1993. A rising tide of Aboriginal sea claims: implications of the Mabo case in Australia. The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 8(3):359-371.

Berkes, F. 2008. Community conserved areas: policy issues in historic and contemporary context.

Conservation Letters 2:19–24.

Berkes, F. and D. Jolly. 2001. Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community. Conservation Ecology 5 (2): 18. (now Ecology & Society) Blaikie, P. 1985. The political economy of soil erosion in developing countries. Longman: London.

Blaikie, P. 2006. Is Small Really Beautiful? Community-based Natural Resource Management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development 34 (11): 1942-1957.

Boglioli, M. 2009. A matter of life and death: hunting in contemporary Vermont. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

–  –  –

Borgerhoff-Mulder, M. and P. Copolillo. 2004. Conservation: linking ecology, economics, and culture.

Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge.

Braun, B. and N. Castree (eds.) 1998. Remaking reality: nature at the millennium. London: Routledge.

Brechin, S., Wilshusen, P., Fortwrangler, C., and P. West, (eds.) 2003. Contested nature: promoting international biodiversity conservation with social justice in the twenty-first century. New York: State University of New York Press.

Brockington, D. 2002 Fortress conservation: the preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania.

Oxford: James Currey.

Brockington, D., R. Duffy, and J. Igoe (eds.) 2008. Nature unbound: conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas. London: Routledge.

Brockington, D. and R. Duffy (eds.). 2011. Capitalism and conservation. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Bromley, D. 1991. Environment and economy: property rights and public policy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bromley, D. 1992. Making the commons work: theory, practice, and policy. San Francisco: ICS Press.

Brosius, P. and D. Russell. 2003. Conservation from above: an anthropological perspective on transboundary protected areas and ecoregional planning. In Goodale, U. et al. Transboundary protected areas: the viability of regional conservation strategies. New York: Food Products Press. Pp 39-66.

Brosius, P., Tsing, A., and C. Zerner, (eds.) 2005. Communities and conservation: histories and politics of community-based natural resource management. New York: Altamira.

Bryant R. and S. Bailey. 1997. Third world political ecology: an introduction. London: Routledge.

Büscher, B. and W. Dressler 2007. Linking neoprotectionism and environmental governance: on the rapidly increasing tensions between actors in the environment-development nexus. Conservation and Society 5(4):586-611.

Büscher, B, Sullivan, S., Neves, K., Igoe, J., and D. Brockington. 2011. Towards a synthesized critique of neoliberal biodiversity conservation. Capitalism Nature Socialism 23 (2): 4-30.

Carney, J. and M.J. Watts. 1991. Disciplining women? Rice, mechanization, and the evolution of Mandinka gender relations in Senegambia. Signs 16 (4): 651-681.

Carrier, J. and G. Macleod. 2005. Bursting the bubble: the socio-cultural context of ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 11:315–334.

Carrier, J. and P. West. 2009. Virtualism, governance and practice: vision and execution in environmental conservation. New York: Berghahn.

Carruthers, J. 1995. The Kruger National Park: a social and political history. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa:

University of Natal Press.

Castells, M. 1996. The rise of the network society. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

Castree, N. 1995. The nature of produced nature. Antipode 27:12-48.

Castree, N. 2003. Commodifying what nature? Progress in Human Geography 27 (3): 273–297.

Cederlof, G. and K. Sivaramakrishnan (eds.) 2006. Ecological nationalisms: nature, livelihoods and identities in Southeast Asia. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Chapin, M. 2004. A challenge to conservationists. World Watch 17-31. Responses Charles, S. and G. Lipovetsky. 2005. Hypermodern times. New York: Polity.

Cinner, J. and S. Aswani. 2007. Integrating customary management into marine conservation. Biological Conservation 140 (3-4): 201-216.

Cooper, M. 2010. Turbulent worlds: financial markets and environmental crises. Theory, Culture and Society 27 (2-3): 167-190.

Cooper, N. 2000. How natural is a nature reserve? An ideological study of British nature conservation landscapes. Biodiversity and Conservation 8:1131-1152.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |


Similar works:

«CHAPTER 1 DATA MINING AND WAREHOUSING CONCEPTS 1.1 INTRODUCTION The past couple of decades have seen a dramatic increase in the amount of information or data being stored in electronic format. This accumulation of data has taken place at an explosive rate. It has been estimated that the amount of information in the world doubles every 20 months and the sizes as well as number of databases are increasing even faster. There are many examples that can be cited. Point of sale data in retail, policy...»

«Transactions of the Philological Society Volume 103:2 (2005) 171–192 A COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RECONSTRUCTION METHODS ON AN INDO-EUROPEAN DATASET By LUAY NAKHLEHa, TANDY WARNOWb, DON RINGEc AND STEVEN N. EVANSd a Rice University; University of Texas at Austin; cUniversity of b Pennsylvania; dUniversity of California at Berkeley ABSTRACT Researchers interested in the history of the Indo-European family of languages have used a variety of methods to estimate the phylogeny of the family, and...»

«INFLUENCE OF THE FIRST CRUSADE ON THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Military History by JOSEPH L. LEARDI, MAJ, USA B.S., James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, 1993 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188...»

«RISK SHARING WITH THE MONARCH: CONTINGENT DEBT AND EXCUSABLE DEFAULTS IN THE AGE OF PHILIP II, 1556–1598* Mauricio Drelichman Hans-Joachim Voth The University of British Columbia ICREA/Universitat Pompeu Fabra and and CIFAR CREI This Draft: October 2013 Abstract: Contingent sovereign debt can create important welfare gains. Nonetheless, there is almost no issuance today. Using hand-collected archival data, we examine the first known case of large-scale use of state-contingent sovereign debt...»

«Spiritualität um 1900. Historisch-epistemologische Untersuchungen der protestantischen Pneumatologie der Religionsgeschichtlichen Schule Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde durch den Promotionsausschuss Dr. Philosophie. der Universität Bremen vorgelegt von Thomas Auwärter Bremen, den 10.2.2006 ii Inhalt 1. Einleitung: Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung, Hinführung zum Problem, Entwicklung der Aufgabe und Hinweise zur Methodik 1 2. Die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule und die...»

«A Short Introduction to Quantitative Geography Richard Harris, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol Summary This short report provides a short introduction to quantitative geography (or, why geography without quantitative methods just does not add up), its history and why it is of on-going importance within the discipline. It argues that quantitative geography is sometimes confused with traditional statistical tests that, although often useful, do not do justice to its wider...»

«All Saints' Church Hartford A brief guide & history Introduction The Parish Church of All Saints' Hartford was originally built in 1180, on the site of a Roman watch tower, in its picturesque setting on the banks of the River Ouse. The walls are of pebble and stone rubble with stone dressings, and tiled roofs. Much rebuilding has been done especially in 1861 and 1895. Christian worship in the village can be traced back even earlier to 1086, when the Domesday Book records a simple wooden church,...»

«Visual and Written Discourses of British Commemorative War Monuments N. Gillian Abousnnouga Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies Cardiff University This thesis is submitted to Cardiff University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy March 2012 Abstract This thesis analyses commemorative war monuments using a social semiotic approach to understand how they communicate as three-dimensional objects, considering their design alongside...»

«VERMONT CORPORATIONS An Index To Private Corporations Formed By the Legislature Edited and Compiled by D. Gregory Sanford STATE PAPERS OF VERMONT Volume Twenty James H. Douglas Secretary of State © Copyright 1987 Secretary of State Montpelier, Vermont Table of Contents Page Note to the Reader............................................. 11 Entry Format and List of Abbreviations Index to Corporate Charters..........................»

«LEIDEN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY & DEVELOPMENT SOCIOLOGY “Somali Girls Like White” Somali Women, Beauty, and Cosmetic Skin Lightening in Eastleigh, Nairobi, Kenya Alisa Jannink s0835560 SUPERVISOR: DR. JAN JANSEN Table of Contents Acknowledgements 2 The Makings of a Cosmetic Anthropologist 4 1. “Eww, Black” Introduction to the Research and Definitions 6 2. Somalis, Not Africans Somalis Historical Self-Perception as Non-African 10 3. Whiteness in a Post-colonial,...»

«SENIOR THESES, GEOLOGY Middlebury College ATTWOOD, Emily. Investigating the Properties and Origin of Fine Sediment within Late-Lying Snow Banks in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, 71 pp. CHU, Kevin. Cartographic Analysis of Watershed-Scale Surface and Groundwater Interactions in Bristol, Vermont. 53 pp. COLT, Jeffrey. The Structural Geology of Two High Strain Zones Along the Norumbega Fault System, Central Coastal Maine, 78 pp. FALCONES, Kristoffer. Rates of Soil Formation and Tectonic Uplift of...»

«FROM MAJOR JORDAN'S DIARIES Our deep gratitude and thanks goes to Karen A. for her precious time donated to the transcribing of this book. We've checked many sources and cannot find a publishing house now offering the book for sale. If you know of a source where people may purchase, please let us know. As our time permits we'll be adding to the historical information surrounding the orchestration, implementation and tragic results of WWII. Most of all, our readers will discover major lies that...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.