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«Crusades Crusades were Christian military expeditions and religious wars proclaimed by the pope. They were organized mainly to defend Christians and ...»

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Historians once thought the crusaders who returned to Europe introduced Westerners to Eastern goods and ways of life. They thought that this contact greatly influenced Western life. As a result of the Crusades, they argued, Europeans were introduced to such items as sugar, silk, velvet, and glass mirrors. But modern historians reject these arguments. They point to a wide amount of interchange between Muslims, Byzantines, and Europeans long before the Crusades. Book Multimedia Encyclopedia © 2003 World Book, Inc. 233 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2000 Chicago, Illinois 60601. All rights reserved.

From the World Printed from The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia

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Child, John, and others.The Crusades. Bedrick, 1996. Younger readers.

Foss, Michael.People of the First Crusade. Arcade Pub., 1997.

Hillenbrand, Carole.The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Reagan, Geoffrey.Lionhearts: Saladin, Richard I, and the Era of the Third Crusade. Walker, 1999.

Rice, Earle.Life During the Crusades. Lucent Bks., 1998..

Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed.The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. 1995. Reprint. Oxford, 1997.

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From the World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia © 2003 World Book, Inc. 233 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2000 Chicago, Illinois 60601. All rights reserved.

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