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«CONCEALED INTEREST INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THE NETHERLANDS: 1977. 1979 AND 1981 Brugt Kazemier The views expressed in this paper are those of the ...»

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Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal, 1986, Verslag van het rentesteekproefonderzoek (Krachtens de Wet Rentesteekproefonderzoek 1984/1985 aangeboden aan de Minister van Financiën). Vergaderjaar 1985-1986,19200 Ch. IX-B no. 38 ('s-Gravenhage).

Van Eck, R. and B. Kazemier, 1988, Features of the Hidden Economy in the Netherlands. The Review of Income and Wealth, 3 4 ( 3 ), pp 251-273.

Van Eck, R. and B. Kazemier, 1989, Zwarte arbeid, een empirische en methodologische studie (PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam).

National Accounts Occasional Papers Flexibility in the system of National Accounts, Van Eck, R., C.N. Gorter and H.K. van Tuinen (1983).

This paper sets out some of the main ideas of what radually developed int0 the Dutch view on the fourth revision of the SPjA. In particular it focuses on the validity and even desirability of the inclusion of a number of carefully chosen alternative definitions in the "Blue Book", and the organization of a flexible s stem starting from a core that is easier to understand than the 1968 S ~ A.

The unobserved economy and the National Accounts in the Netherlands, a sensitivity analysis, Broesterhuizen, G.A.A.M. (1983).

This paper studies the influence of fraud on macro-economic statistics, especially GDP. The term "fraud" is used as meaning unreporting or underreporting income (e.g. to the tax authorities).

The conclusion of the analysis of growth figures is that a bias in the growth of GDP of more than 0.5% is very unlikely.

Secondary activities and the National Accounts: Aspects of the Dutch measurement practice and its effects on the unofficial economy, Van Eck, R. (1985).

In the process of estimatin national product and other variables in % the National Accounts a num er of methods is used to obtain initia1 estimates for each economic activity. These methods are described and for each method various possibilities for distortion are considered.

Comparability of input-out ut tables in time, Al, P.G. and G.A.

A.M. Broesterhuizen (lt85) It is argued that the comparability in time of statistics, and in utoutput tables in particular, can be filled in in various ways. & e way in which it is filled depends on the structure and object of the statistics concerned. In this respect it is important to differentiate between coordinated input-output tables, in which roups of units (industries) are divided into rows end columns, an$ analytica1 inputoutput tables, in which the rows and colunms refer to homogeneous activities.

The use of chain indices for deflatin the National Accounts, Al, P.G., B.M. Balk, S. de Boer and G.P. %en Bakker (1985).

This paper is devoted to the roblem of deflatin National Accounts and input-output tables. This proglem is ap roached from the theoretical as wel1 as from the practica1 side. ~ 1 t R o u ~ h theoretical argument the favors the use of chained Vartia-I indices, the current practice of compilating National Accounts restricts to using chained Paasche and Laspeyres indices. Various possible objections to the use of chained indices are discussed and rejected.

Revision of the s stem of National Accounts: the case for flexibility, Van gochove, C.A. and H.K. van Tuinen (1985).

It is argued that the structure of the SNA should be made more flexible. This can be achieved by means of a system of a genera1 urpose core supplemented with special modules. This core is a fully detailed system of Narional Accounts with a greater !ledged institufional content than the resent SNA and a more elaborate description of the economy at tRe meso-level. The modules are more analytic and reflect special purposes and specific theoretical views.

It is argued that future revisions wil1 concentrate on the modules and that the core is more durable than systems like present SNA.

Integration of input-output tables and sector accounts; a possible solution, Van den Bos, C. (1985).

The establishment-enterprise problem is tackled by taking the institutional sectors to which the establishments belong int0 account during the construction of input-output tables. The extra burden on the construction of input-output tables resulting from this ap roach is examined for the Dutch situation. An adapted sectoring of Pnstitutional units is proposed for the construction of input-output tables.

NA/08 note on Dutch National Accounting data 1900-1984,Van Bochove, C.A.

A (1985).

This note provides a brie£ survey of Dutch national accounting data for 1900-1984, concentratin on national income. It indicates where these data can be found and wiat the major discontinuities are. The note concludes that estimates of the level of national income may contain inaccuracies; that its growth rate is measured accurately for the eriod since 1948; and that the real income growth rate series for P900-1984 may contain a systematic bias.

The structure of the next SNA: review of the basic options, Van Bochove, NA/09 C.A. and A.M. Bloem (1985).

There are two basic issues with respect to the structure of the next

version the UN System of National Accounts. The first is its 'size ' :

reviewirg this issue, it can be concluded that the next SNA must be 'large in the sense of containin an integrated meso-economic statistica1 system. It is essentiaf that the next SNA contains an institutional system without the im utations and attributions that pollute present SNA. This can be acEieved by distinguishing in the centra1 system of the next SNA, a core (the institutional sistem), a standard module for non-market production and a standard module describing attributed income and consumption of the household sector.

NA/10 Dual sectoring in National Accounts, Al, P.G. (1985).

Following a conceptual explanation of dual sectoring, an outline is given of a statistica1 s stem with complete dual sectoring in which the linkages are also dezined and worked out It is shown that the SNA 1968 is incomplete and obscure with respect to the links between the two sub-processes.

Backward and forward linkages with an a plication to the Dutch agroNA/11 industrial complex, Harthoorn, R. (19851 Some industries induce production in ot er industries. An elegant method is developed for calculating forward and backward linka es avoiding double counting. For 1981 these methods have been appfied to determine the influence of Dutch agriculture in the Dutch economy in terms of value added and labour force.

Production chains, Harthoorn, R. (1986).

NA/12 This pa er introduces the notion of production cains as a measure of the Rierarchy of industries in the production process. Production chains are sequences of transformation of products by successive industries. It is possible to calculate forward transformations as wel1 as backward ones.

The simultaneous compilation of current NA/13 rice and deflated inputoutput tables, De Boer, S. and G. A. A.M. Eroesterhuizen (1986).

A few years a o the method of compiling in ut-output tables underwent in the ~etherfandsan essential revision. !he most significant improvement is that during the entire statistica1 process, from the processsing and anal sis of the basic data up to and includin the phase of balancing t8e tables, data in current prices and deffated data are obtained simultaneously and in consistency with each other.

A roposal for the s optic structure of the next SNA, Al, P.G. and NA/14.A..

C van Bochove ( 9 ) 1E Features of the hidden economy in the Netherlands, Van Eck, R. and NA/15 B. Kazemier (1986).

This pa er presents s u m e results on the size and structure of the X hidden Pabour market in t e Netherlands.

NA/16 Uncoverin hidden income distributions: the Dutch approach, Van Bochove, C.A. (1987).

NA/17 Main national accounting series 1900-1986,Van Bochove, C.A. and T.A. Huitker (1987).

The main national accountin series for the Netherlands, 1900-1986,are provided, along with a bries explanation.

The Dutch economy, 1921-1939 and 1969-1985. A comparison based on revised macro-economic data for the interwar period, Den Bakker, G.P., T.A. Huitker and C.A. van Bochove (1987).

A set of macro-economic time series for the Netherlands 1921-1939 is resented. The new series differ considerably from the data that had geen ublished before. They are also more comprehensive, more detaiyed, and conceptually consistent with the modern National Accounts. The macro-economic developments that are shown by the new series are discussed. It turns out that the traditional economichistorica1 view of the Dutch economy has to be reversed.

Constant wealth national income: accounting for war dama e with an application to the Netherlands, 1940-1945, Van Bochove, E.A. and W.

van Sorge (1987).

The micro-meso-macro linka e for business in an SNA-compatible system of economic statistfcs, Van Bochove, C.A. (1987).

Micro-macro link for government, Bloem, A.M. (1987).

This paper describes the way the link between the statistics on overnment finance and national accounts is provided for in the hutch government finance statistics.

Some extensions of the static open Leontief model, Harthoorn, R.


The results of input-output analysis are invariant for a transformation of the system of units. Such transformation can be used to derive the Leontief price model, for forecasting input-output tables and for the calculation of cumulative factor costs. Finally the series expansion of the Leontief inverse is used to describe how certain economic processes are spread out over time.

Com ilation of household sector accounts in the Netherlands Accounts, Van der Laan, P. (1987).

~atfonal This paper provides a concise description of the wa in which household sector accounts are compiled within the ~etherlandsNational Accounts. Special attention IS paid to differences with the recommendations in the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA).

ûn the adjustment of tables with Lagrange multipliers, Harthoorn, R.

and J. van Dalen (1987).

An efficient variant of the Laeranee method is eiven. which uses no more computer time and centralumemÖry then the %dely used RAS method.

Also some special cases are discussed: the adjustment of row sums and column sums, additional restraints, mutual connections between tables and three dlmensional tables.

The methodolo y of the Dutch system of quarterly accounts, Janssen, R.J.A. and s.f. Algera (1988).

In this paper a description 1s given of the Dutch system of quarterly national accounts. The backbone of the method is the compilation of a quarterly input-output table by integrating short-term economic statistics.

Im utations and re-routeings in the National Accounts, Gorter, Cor N.

(1688) startik out from a definition of 'actual' transactions an inventory of al1 !mputations and re-routeings in the SNA is made. It is discussed which of those should be retained in the core of a flexible system of National Accounts. Conce tual and ractical questions of presentation are brought up. ~umericaleape xm!s are given.

Re istration of trade in services and market valuation of imports an8 export. in the National Accounts, Bos, Frits (1988).

The registration o£ external trade transactions in the main tables of the National Accounts should be based on invoice value; this is not conceptually very attractive, but also suitable for data ection purposes.

The institutional sector classification, Van den Bos, C. (1988).

A background paper on the conceptual side of the grouping of financing units. A limited number of criteria are formulate.

The concept of (transactor-)units in the National Accounts and in the basic system of economic statistics, Bloem, Adriaan M. (1989).

Units in legal-administrative reality are often not suitable as statistica1 units in describing economic processes. Some transformation of le al-administrative units int0 economic statistica1 units is needed. A i s paper examiner this transformation and furnishes definitions of economic statistical units. Proper definitions are especially important because of the forthcoming revision o£ the SNA.

Regional income concepts, Bloem, Adriaan M. and Bas De Vet (1989).

In this paper, the conceptual and statistical problems involved in the regionalization of national accounting variables are discussed.

Examples are the regionalization of Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Income, Disposable National Income and Total Income of the Population.

The use of tendency surveys in extra olating National Accounts, Ouddeken, Frank and Gerrif Zi lmans 71989~ This paper discussec the feas bility of t e use of tendency survey data in the com ilation of ve timely Quarterly Accounts. Some =T preliminary estgmates of reiat ons between tendency survey data and regular Quarterly Accounts-indicators are also presented.

An economic core system and the socio-economic accounts module for the Netherlands, Gorter, Cor N. and Paul van der Laan (1989).

A discussion of the core and various t es of modules in an overall system of economy related statistics. gecial attention is paid to the Dutch Socio-economic Accounts. Tables and figures for the Netherlands are added.

A systems view on concepts of income in the National Accounts, Bos, Frits (1989).

1n-this pa Gr, concepts of income are explicit1 linked to the purposes !o use and to actual circumstances. ~ a % choices in defining income are presented in a genera1 system. The National Accounts is a multi-purpose framework. It should therefore contain several concepts of income, e.g. differing with respect to the production boundary.

Furthermore, concepts of national income do not necessarily constitute an aggregation of income at a micro-level.

How to treat borrowing and leasing in the next SNA, Keuning, Steven J.


The use of services related to borrowing money, leasing capital goods, and renting land should not be considered as intermediate inputs int0 s ecific roduction processes. It is argued that the way of recordin ?

i t e use !o financial services in the present SNA should remain largefy intact.

A summary description of sources and methods used in compiling the final estimates of Dutch National Income 1986, Gorter, Cor N. and others (1990).

Translation of the inventory report submitted to the GNP Management Committee of the European Communities.

The registration of processin in make and use tables and in ut-output tables, Bloem, Adriaan M., s a k De Boer and Pieter Vind (1998, forthcoming).

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