«Paper #2-11 SUBSEA DRILLING, WELL OPERATIONS AND COMPLETIONS Prepared by the Offshore Operations Subgroup of the Operations & Environment Task Group ...»
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/textidx?c=ecfr&sid=6329d28c687721b5bc9dd6b570d590ca&rgn=div5&view=text&node=3 0:188.8.131.52.3&idno=30 Code of Federal Regulations (2011b). Code of Federal Regulations, 40CFR435, Title 40 – Protection of Environment, Chapter 1- Environmental Protection Agency, Subchapter N – Effluent guidelines and Standards, Part 435-Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category. US Government Printing Office. http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/textidx?c=ecfr&sid=1e61ed4f4fabc2b4b0cadbdb77d3e5f3&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40cfr43 5_main_02.tpl Cooper, S.R. (2008). People and Parts – Transforming the Risk Drivers (116375-MS) SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, October 20-22, 2008, 10 p. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-116375MS&soc=SPE Dick, A.J. (2005). Deepwater Subsea Well Intervention - the Future Solution (93866-MS). SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta Indonesia, April 5-7, 2005, 5 p. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-93866MS&soc=SPE <
DOI (2010). Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf.
US Department of the Interior, May 27, 2010, 44 p.
http://www.doi.gov/deepwaterhorizon/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&PageID=3 Eni (2008). Encyclopaedia of Hydrocarbons, 3.4 Offshore Drilling. Eni. p. 373-383.
http://www.treccani.it/export/sites/default/Portale/sito/altre_aree/Tecnologia_e_Scienze_ applicate/enciclopedia/inglese/inglese_vol_1/pag373-384ing3.pdf EPA (1999). Development document for proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for synthetic-based drilling fluids and other non-aqueous drilling fluids in the oil and gas extraction point source category (EPA-821-B-98-021). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, February 1999, 282 p.
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ols/catalog/catalog_display.cfm?&FIELD1=SUBJECT&INPUT1=C hemical%20effluents&TYPE1=EXACT&item_count=37 Fahlman, G.H. (1974). Safety Characteristics of Lockheed’s Subsea Production System (2089MS). Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 6-8, 1974, 14 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-2089-MS&soc=OTC Federal Register. (2010a). Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf – Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf;
Final Rule, 30 CFR Part 250 (Document Number 2010-25256). Federal Register 75, no.
198: 63346-63377. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-14/pdf/2010-25256.pdf Federal Register (2010b). Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf— Safety and Environmental Management Systems, Final Rule, 30 CFR Part 250 (Document Number 2010-25665) Federal Register 75, no. 199: 63610-63654.
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-15/pdf/2010-25665.pdf French, L.S., Richardson, G. E., Kazanis, E.G., Montgomery, T. M., Bohannon, C. M., and Gravois, M.P. (2006). Deepwater Gulf of Mexico 2006: America’s Expanding Frontier (OCS Report MMS-2006-022). Minerals Management Service, US Department of the Interior, May 2006, 148 p.
http://www.gomr.boemre.gov/homepg/whatsnew/techann/2006/2006-022.pdf Ghiselin D. (2009). Best practices emerging for ERD wells. E&P Magazine, September 1, 2009, 4 p.
http://www.varelintl.com/content/includes/best_practices_emerging_for_erd_wells.pdf http://www.epmag.com/Magazine/2009/9/item44535.php Gordon, J., Saicic P., and McAllan, R. (2010). Deepwater Developments: Challenging Equipment Limits (132516-MS), SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, October 18-20, 2010, 9 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-132516-MS&soc=SPE Griffin, R., Plessis, G., Chin, D., Dale, J. (2008). Gas-Tight Rotary-Shouldered Connection Riser Simplifies Intervention (115215-MS). IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, August 25-27, 2008, 8 p.
Hammett, D.S. and Luke, J.M. (1986). Success and Failure: Subsea Completions (5313-MS).
Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 5-8, 1986, 10 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-5313-MS&soc=OTC Hansen, R.L. and Rickey, W. P. (1995). Evolution of Subsea Production Systems: A Worldwide Overview (29074-PA). Journal of Petroleum Technology 47(8), p. 675-680.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=00029084&soc=SPE International Finance Corporation. (2007). Environmental, Health, and Safety General Guidelines. World Bank Group, April 30, 2007, 99 p.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sustainability.nsf/Content/EHSGuidelines James, R.W. and Rørvik, B. (2002). Total Energy Consumption: A Comparative Case Study of Two Alternative North Sea Cuttings Handling Processes Associated with the Use of Oil Based Drilling Fluids (73919-MS). SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, March 20-22, 2002, 6 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/Preview.do?paperNumber=00073919&societyCode= SPE Jacques Whitford Environment Limited. (2001). Technical Report, Offshore Drilling Waste Management Review (2001-0007). Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, February 2001, 268 p.
http://www.capp.ca/library/publications/atlanticCanada/pages/pubInfo.aspx?DocId=2502 2#uXR3ZfyFKMpE Jellison M., Muradov, A., Hehn L., Foster, B., Elliot G. and Sanclemente L. (2009). Ultra-highstrength drill pipe: A new lightweight steel alloy will allow wells to be drilled farther and deeper. World Oil, 230(7), July 2009, 9 p. http://www.worldoil.com/July-2009-Ultrahigh-strength-drill-pipe-expands-the-drilling-envelope.html
Associated graphic image at:
http://www.worldoil.com/uploadedimages/Issues/Articles/Jul-2009/09Ultra_Jellison_fig4.gif Kelly, T. P. and Strauss, R. H. (2009). Agbami Field Development—Subsea Equipment Systems, Trees, Manifolds and Controls (19919–MS). Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 4-7, 2009, 15 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-19919-MS&soc=OTC King, J. (2001). Cost and Risk Reduction through Innovation: Remotely Actuated Completion Equipment for Deepwater and Extended Reach Wells (68763-MS) SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, April 17-19, 2001, 11 p.
LeBoeuf, G., Adams, S., Pittman, A., and Dodd, P. (2008). Case History: New Design in Surface-Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves Resolves Valve Problems in Subsea Completions in the Gulf of Mexico (19620-MS). Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 5-8, 2008, 9 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-19620-MS&soc=OTC Leimkuhler, J. (2010). Offshore Drilling Overview, Challenges & Solutions. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil spill and Offshore Drilling, August 25, 2010, 27 p. http://www.oilspillcommission.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ JoeLeimkuhlerSlides.pdf
Maldonado, B., Arrazola, A., and Morton, B. (2006). Ultradeep HP/HT Completions:
Classification, Design Methodologies, and Technical Challenges (17927-MS) Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 1-4, 2006, 16 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-17927-MS&soc=OTC Mathieson, D., Giuliani, C., Ajayi, A., and Smithson, M. (2006). Intelligent Well Automation Design and Practice (103082-MS). SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, September 24-26, 2006, 6 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-103082-MS&soc=SPE MMS (2010). Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the OCS (NTL No. 2010N05). Minerals Management Service, US Department of the Interior, June 8, 2010. [As a result of a legal ruling on October 19, 2010, this document no longer is available online.] Murray, A.J., Kapila, M., Ferrari, G. Degouy, D., Espagne, B.J., Handgraaf, P. (2008). FrictionBased Thermal Desorption Technology: Kashagan Development Project Meets Environmental Compliance in Drill-Cuttings Treatment and Disposal (116169-MS). SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, September 21-24, 2008, 6 p. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-116169MS&soc=SPE Nagel, N. B. and McLennan, J. D., eds. (2010) Solids Injection, Monograph 24 (ISBN:978-1Society of Petroleum Engineers, 285 p. http://store.spe.org/SolidsInjection-P437.aspx Neff, J.M. (2005). Composition, Environmental Fates, And Biological Effects Of Water Based Drilling Muds And Cuttings Discharged To The Marine Environment: A Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography. Petroleum Environmental Research Forum, January 2005, 83 p.
http://www.perf.org/pdf/APIPERFreport.pdf Nergaard, A. (2005). Part V, Offshore drilling technology. University of Stavanger and Smedvig Offshore (via Kenneth Larsen at Statoil), December 14, 2005, p. 3 http://www.ccop.or.th/PPM/document/INEXV2/INEXV2DOC05_nergaard.pdf NETL (2011). Exploration & Production Technologies, Advanced Drilling. National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy.
NOAA (2010). NOAA Ocean Explorer: Expedition to the Deep Slope. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce, August 26, 2010.
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/06mexico/background/oil/media/types_600.ht ml Oil in Israel (2009). Completion Diagram. Oil in Israel. http://www.oilinisrael.net/wpcontent/uploads/2009/10/Completion-Diagram.jpg OSHA (2009). Mud Circulation System. Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing eTool, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, US Department of Labor, May 20, 2009.
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/oilandgas/drilling/mud_system.html Pettersen, J. (2007). Overall evaluation of offshore drilling fluid technology, Development and application of life-cycle inventory and impact assessment methods. Doctoral thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 169 p.. http://ntnu.divaportal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:123306 Pettersen, J. and Hertwich, E.G. (2008). Occupational health impacts: offshore crane lifts in life cycle assessment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13(5), p. 440-449.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p5037kju66182756/ Redden, J. (2009). Subsurface waste injection taking quantum technical leap, Offshore Magazine 69(4), p. 92-95.
Ronalds B. F. (2002). Deepwater Facility Selection (14259-MS). Offshore Technology Conference, May 6-9, 2002, Houston, Texas, 12 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-14259-MS&soc=OTC Skeels, H.B., Hopkins, B.C., and Cunningham, C.E. (1993). The Horizontal Subsea Tree: A Unique Configuration Evolution (7244-MS) Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 3-6, 1993. 18 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-7244-MS&soc=OTC Simonds, R., Falconer, R., and Richard, L. (2000). Remotely Actuated Completion System Offers Cost Efficiency for Offshore Environments (11930-MS) Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 1-4, 2000, 15 p.
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=OTC-11930-MS&soc=OTC Transocean (2011). Fleet Specifications. GSF Galveston Key (300 Foot Jack-up Drilling Unit).
Transocean Ltd. http://www.deepwater.com/fw/main/GSF-Galveston-KeyC15.html?LayoutID=17 Veil, J.A., Burke, C.J. and Moses, D.O. (1995). Synthetic Drilling Fluids- A Pollution Prevention Opportunity for the Oil and Gas Industry. US Department of Energy, January 26, 1995, 11 p. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/184270-LzuPM9/webviewable/184270.pdf
Waltman, B., Torres, D., Dusterhoft, R., and Lizak, K. (2010). Technologies or Intangibles:
What Drives Sand-Control Selection? (20488-MS). Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 3-6, 2010, 6 p.
Wibawa, S., Kvernstuen, S., Chechin, A., Graham, J., and Dowling, K.R. (2008). ICD Screen Technology in Stag Field to Control Sand and Increase Recovery by Avoiding Wormhole Effect (12385-MS) International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 3-5, 2008, 11 p.
APPENDICESA. Appendix 1: Glossary Aromatic Hydrocarbon. A hydrocarbon compound that includes one or more hybridized (benzene-type) rings of carbon atoms in its molecular structure. This family of organic chemicals includes thousands of different compounds with different numbers and types of molecular rings and different potential environmental effects. They are distinguished from aliphatic hydrocarbons which, at the molecular level, are built from chains rather than rings of carbon atoms.
Barite. A naturally occurring mineral form of barium sulfate.
Bentonite. A naturally occurring industrial mineral consisting mostly of smectite (montmorillonite-type) clays with minor amounts of other silica-based minerals.
BOEMRE. US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement. As of June 2010, BOEMRE (sometimes shortened to BOEM) is the successor to the former Minerals Management Service (MMS).
BOP. Blowout preventer. An assembly of ram-driven pipe cutters, connectors and valves that functions as an emergency system for shutting off hydrocarbon flow from a well. BOPs can be configured to sit directly atop the wellhead or at some distance above the wellhead.