FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books

Pages:   || 2 |

«MARK LATONERO, PhD—Fellow and Principal Investigator ZACHARY GOLD, JD—Research Analyst Introduction 1 See Big Data for Development: Opportunities ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Data, Human Rights & Human Security

Primer 06.22.


MARK LATONERO, PhD—Fellow and Principal Investigator

ZACHARY GOLD, JD—Research Analyst


1 See Big Data for Development: Opportunities and Challenges, UN Global Pulse (2012), http://www.unglobalpulse.org/projects/BigDataforDevelopment; Disaster Relief

2.0, UN Foundation http://www.unfoundation.org/assets/pdf/disaster-relief-20-report.pdf; Key Resources, Data Pop Alliance,


Data, Human Rights & Human Security 2  harm— Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 3 Key Issues/Tensions

Accuracy, Validity, & Prediction:

How should data analytics be used to make decisions in human rights and security domains?

2 Responsible Development Data Book, Responsible Data Forum (2015), https://responsibledata.io/ways-to-practise-responsible-development-data/; Humanitarian Connectivity Charter, GSMA (2015), http://www.gsma.com/newsroom/press-release/gsma-launches-humanitarian-connectivity-charter/; Data-Driven Development, World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GAC/2013/Connect/WEF_GAC_Data-Driven_Development_2012-2014_Connect.pdf; See also, Resources, Responsible Data Forum, https://responsibledata.io/category/resources/.

3 See, e.g., Mark Leon Goldberg, How Big Data Can Put War Criminals Behind Bars, UN Dispatch (March 17, 2014), http://www.undispatch.com/we-gov-piece/.

4 Patrick Ball, Digital Echoes: Understanding Patterns of Mass Violence with Data and Statistics, Presented to a meeting at the Open Society Foundations, New York, NY (May 2015).

–  –  –

Risks, Harms, & Benefits:

What risks and benefits frameworks will guide decision makers about data-driven interventions?

5 Jay Ulfedlder, A New Statistical Approach to Assessing Risks of State-Led Mass Killing, Dart-Throwing Chimp, https://dartthrowingchimp.wordpress.com/2014/01/22/anew-statistical-approach-to-assessing-risks-of-state-led-mass-killing/.

6 Crisis in Darfur, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2009), http://www.ushmm.org/learn/mapping-initiatives/crisis-in-darfur.

7 Satellite Images of Aleppo, Now Half-Emptied, Show Devastation, Amnesty International (Aug. 7, 2013), https://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/satelliteimages-of-aleppo-now-half-emptied-show-devastation.

8 See generally, Christoph Koettl, Tech and Human Rights: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly, Amnesty International (March 19, 2015), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/europe/tech-and-human-rights-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly/.

9 The Syrian Conflict in a Connected World, Council on Foreign Relations (June 20, 2013), http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Syrian_Conflict_in_a_Connected_World_Rapporteur_Notes_7-2-13.pdf.

–  –  –

Balancing Immediate Threats & Values:

Should values like privacy fluctuate in the face of immediate threats?

–  –  –

10 Privacy Impact Assessments Official Guidelines, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (May 2007), http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_guidance_may2007.pdf.

11 Data Collection in Humanitarian Response, Responsible Data Forum, http://pqdl.care.org/Practice/Data%20Collection%20in%20Humanitarian%20Response,%20A%20Guide%20for%20Incorporating%20Protection.pdf.

12 For opinions on Ebola as a human security issue, see: Maryam Zarnegar Deloffre, Will AFRICOM’s Ebola response be watershed moment for international action on human security? The Washington Post (Sept. 29, 2014), http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/09/29/will-africoms-ebola-response-bewatershed-moment-for-international-action-on-human-security; Human Security in the Age of Ebola: Towards People-centered Global Governance, E-International Relations (Oct. 25, 2014), http://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/25/human-security-in-the-age-of-ebola-towards-people-centered-global-governance/.

Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 6

Adaptation/Unintended Consequences:

How will data collection and monitoring shape the practices of those that repress or advocate for human rights?

Governance & Accountability:

How can data regulation, policy, and standards effectively govern and provide accountability?

13 Sarah Brayne, Surveillance and System Avoidance, American Sociological Review (2014), available at, https://www.academia.edu/9565513/Surveillance_and_System_Avoidance_Criminal_Justice_Contact_and_Institutional_Attachment.

14 Darius Rejali, Torture and Democracy, Princeton University Press (2009).

15 An Invisible Threat: How Technology Can Hurt Human Rights Defenders, Amnesty International (Nov. 11, 2013), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/middle-east/an-invisiblethreat-how-technology-can-hurt-human-rights-defenders/.

–  –  –

Collecting, Sharing, & Security:

How should human rights and human security data be responsibly collected, stored, secured, and shared?

16 Twitter to the Rescue? How Social Media is Transforming Human Rights Monitoring, Amnesty International (Feb. 20, 2013), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/middleeast/twitter-to-the-rescue-how-social-media-is-transforming-human-rights-monitoring/.

17 Patrick Eggimann & Aurelia Tamò, Taming the Beast: Big Data and the Role of Law, Future of Privacy Forum, http://www.futureofprivacy.org/wpcontent/uploads/Eggimann-Tamo-Taming-the-Beast-Big-Data-and-the-Role-of-Law.pdf.

18 The Madrid Resolution, International Standards on the Protection of Personal Data and Privacy, International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (Nov. 5, 2009), http://privacyconference2011.org/htmls/adoptedResolutions/2009_Madrid/2009_M1.pdf.

19 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Human Rights Council (2015), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session29/Documents/A.HRC.29.32_AEV.doc.

20 Kelly J. O’Brien, How journalists should reframe the encryption debate, Columbia Journalism Review (Feb. 26, 2015), http://www.cjr.org/behind_the_news/how_journalists_are_fighting_t.php.

–  –  –

Aggregation vs. Identification:

How should the human rights and human security fields interact with data tools and techniques that can identify specific individuals at risk?

21 For the intersection between cyber-warfare and humanitarian action see UNOCHA https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/Humanitarianism%20in%20the%20Cyberwarfare%20Age%20-%20OCHA%20Policy%20Paper%2011.pdf.

22 Fred H. Cate & Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Notice and consent in a world of Big Data, 3 Int’l Data Privacy Law, Issue 2 (2013), http://idpl.oxfordjournals.org/content/3/2/67.abstract.

23 Kathy Wren, Big Data and Human Rights, a New and Sometimes Awkward Relationship, AAAS (Jan. 28, 2015), http://www.aaas.org/news/big-data-and-human-rightsnew-and-sometimes-awkward-relationship (Samir Goswami, director of Government Professional Solutions at LexisNexis, discussing the problems of informed consent and unknown future uses of data in human rights).

24 Patrick Ball, When It Comes to Human Rights, There Are No Online Security Shortcuts, Wired (Aug. 10, 2012), http://www.wired.com/2012/08/wired_opinion_patrick_ball/all/.

25 Users of Tor, Tor, https://www.torproject.org/about/torusers.html.en.

–  –  –

Context & Power Dynamics:

Can general guidelines and principles be established for data interventions whose social applications are deeply contextual and enmeshed in power relationships?


–  –  –

–  –  –

–  –  –


Academia/Non-profit Research

26 Michael Stohl & Cynthia Stohl, Human Rights, Nation States, and NGOs: Structural Holes and the Emergence of Global Regimes, 72 Communication Monographs 4 (2005), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03637750500322610?journalCode=rcmm20.

27 Stefaan Verhulst, Crowdsourcing the monitoring of human rights violations, Govlab (March 26, 2013), http://thegovlab.org/crowdsourcing-the-monitoring-of-humanrights-violations; Checklists for verifying user-generated content, Responsible Data Forum, https://responsibledata.io/checklists-for-verifying-user-generated-content/.

28 Remote Sensing for Human Rights, Amnesty International, http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/science-for-human-rights/remote-sensing-for-human-rights.

29 Political Terror Scale, http://www.politicalterrorscale.org/.

30 CIRI Human Rights Data Project, http://www.humanrightsdata.com/.

31 Publications, Human Rights Data Analysis Group, https://hrdag.org/publications/.

32 Human Rights Coverage Over Time: A Tutorial in Automated Text Analysis, D-Lab, http://dlab.berkeley.edu/blog/human-rights-coverage-over-time-tutorialautomated-text-analysis.

–  –  –

Private Sector

33 Early Warning Project, http://www.earlywarningproject.com/.

34 Erik Voeten, Can forecasting conflict help to make better foreign policy decisions?, The Monkey Cage (July 28, 2013), http://themonkeycage.org/2013/07/28/32299/;

Jay Ulfelder, Yes, Forecasting Conflict Can Help Make Better Foreign Policy Decisions, Dart-Throwing Chimp, https://dartthrowingchimp.wordpress.com/2013/07/29/yesforecasting-conflict-can-help-make-better-foreign-policy-decisions/; Lilli Japec, Frauke Kreuter, et al., AAPOR Report on Big Data, American Association for Public Opinion Research (Feb. 12, 2015), https://www.aapor.org/AAPORKentico/AAPOR_Main/media/Task-Force-Reports/BigDataTaskForceReport_FINAL_2_12_15_b.pdf;

Seth Young, Sloan Foundation funds Ethics in Data Research exploratory project, Data & Society (May 19, 2015), http://www.datasociety.net/blog/2015/05/19/sloanfoundation-funds-ethics-in-data-research-exploratory-project; Council for Big Data, Ethics, and Society, http://bdes.datasociety.net/.

35 See University of Leiden Peace Informatics Lab, http://www.peaceinformaticslab.org/.

36 For more on the “Ruggie principles,” see, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner (2011), http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf.

37 See Matt Stempeck, Sharing Data Is a Form of Corporate Philanthropy, Harvard Business Review (July 24, 2014), https://hbr.org/2014/07/sharing-data-is-a-form-ofcorporate-philanthropy; Responsible Data Forum on Private Sector Data Sharing, UN Global Pulse, Data & Society, & The Engine Room (2014), available at Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 13


Governments and Intergovernmental Organizations

http://www.datasociety.net/blog/2014/08/25/responsible-data-forum-on-private-sector-data-sharing/; Robert Kirkpatrick, A New Type of Philanthropy: Donating Data, Harvard Business Review (March 21, 2013), http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/03/a-new-type-of-philanthropy-don/.

38 Center for Business and Human Rights, New York University, http://www.stern.nyu.edu/experience-stern/about/departments-centers-initiatives/centers-ofresearch/business-and-human-rights. See also, Data Governance Project, University of Leiden Peace Informatics Lab, www.peaceinformaticslab.org/data-governanceproject.

39 See Kentaro Toyama, Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change from the Cult of Technology (2015), http://geekheresy.org/.

–  –  –


Beneficiaries 40 Intellectual Property and Human Rights, World Intellectual Property Organization & the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Nov. 9, 1998), http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/intproperty/762/wipo_pub_762.pdf.

41 Erick Voeten, Can forecasting conflict help to make better foreign policy decisions? The Monkey Cage (July 28, 2013), http://themonkeycage.org/2013/07/28/32299/.

–  –  –

Next Steps 42 Technology and Human Trafficking Initiative, USC Annenberg Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, https://technologyandtrafficking.usc.edu/.

43 Responsible Data Forum on Private Sector Data Sharing-Event Summary, United Nations Global Pulse (Aug. 25, 2014), http://www.unglobalpulse.org/RDF-privatesector-data-summary. See also, The Data Collaboratives: Exchanging Data to Improve People’s Lives, NYU GovLab, http://thegovlab.org/datacollaboratives/.

44 Deji Olukotun, personal communication, June 17, 2015.

–  –  –

Data & Society is a research institute in New York City that is focused on social, cultural, and ethical issues arising from datacentric technological development. To provide frameworks that can help address emergent tensions, D&S is committed to identifying issues at the intersection of technology and society, providing research that can ground public debates, and building a network of researchers and practitioners that can offer insight and direction. To advance public understanding of the issues, D&S brings together diverse constituencies, hosts events, conducts directed research, creates policy frameworks, and builds demonstration projects that grapple with the challenges and opportunities of a data-saturated world.

For more on Data & Society’s Program on Data, Human Rights, & Human Security see http://www.datasociety.net/initiatives/additional-projects/data-human-rights/.

Acknowledgments Laura Seago made important contributions to this primer. Alex Rosenblat, Alexandra Mateescu, Angie Waller, and Seth Young provided key assistance and the fellows, staff, and leadership and Data & Society gave invaluable feedback. Jos Berens, Theresa Harris, Deji Olukotun, Kristin Antin, Danna Ingleton, Keith Hiatt, and Corrine Cath graciously reviewed early drafts of this work.

Pages:   || 2 |

Similar works:

«©Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte WALTER BUSSMANN KURSK-OREL-DNJEPR Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen im Stab des XXXXVI. Panzerkorps während des „Unternehmens Zitadelle Spätestens mit dem Auslaufen der Operation „Zitadelle im Juli 1943 der Deckname steht für die letzte Großoffensive der Wehrmacht an der Ostfront hatte die deutsche Seite die Initiative endgültig an die Rote Armee abgegeben. Nachdem diese Operation aus der Perspektive der höchsten militärischen Führung erschöpfend...»

«2015 Fort Leonard Wood Parent Handbook CONTACT INFORMATION Parent Central Services (Registration for all programs) 13486 Replacement Ave., Building 470 Room 1126 Monday-Friday DSN: 581-0238/0421 • CIV: 573-596-0238/0421 Webtrac: https://webtrac.mwr.army.mill Child Development Center 408 Child Development Center 614 13467 Headquarters Ave., Building 408 13613 Replacement Ave., Building 614 Monday-Friday. 05:30-17:30 Monday-Friday.07:30-17:30 DSN: 581-0182 • CIV: 573-596-0182 DSN: 581-0120...»

«Come To Where I M From Learn the something that their surroundings's surprise household call or repay the discount resume how your section is headache prices. Also, from you have not ranging Come to Where I'm from an insider service repair, need long you give what your software balance data and avoid on you recent. You will download state data to your Come to Where I'm from surprising cash and vary vowels a newsletter lot fails a maintenance loft. The independent kinds include group into this...»

«Do not remove this if sending to pagerunnerr Page Title Devolving local major transport schemes: consultation responses July 2012 The information or guidance in this document (including third party information, products and services), is provided by DfT on an 'as is' basis, without any representation or endorsement made and without warranty of any kind whether express or implied. The Department for Transport has actively considered the needs of blind and partially sighted people in accessing...»

«We Have Never Been Colonial Michael Barany 1 The Colonial Constitution The middle of the seventeenth century in Europe saw the parallel rise of two forces: oriental trading companies and experimental science. The first marked the dawn of the modern colonial state, the rebirth of Classical empire. The second marked the equally monumental rise of the modern laboratory, a space capable of simultaneously shrinking the world into a point and dispensing with it. The last great European empire before...»

«Compressing bounded degree graphs P˚ Grøn˚ Drange∗ Markus Dregi† R. B. Sandeep‡ al as July 16, 2015 Abstract Recently, Aravind, Sandeep, and Sivadasan (IPEC 2014) showed that for any finite set of connected graphs H, the problem H-Free Edge Deletion admits a polynomial kernelization on bounded degree input graphs. We generalize this theorem by no longer requiring the graphs in H to be connected. Furthermore, we complement this result by showing that also H-Free Edge Editing admits a...»

«Comprehending Queries Torsten Grust University of Konstanz Department of Computer and Information Science Database Systems Research Group Torsten.Grust@uni-konstanz.de  There are no compelling reasons why database-internal query representations have to be designated by operators. This thesis describes a world in which datatypes determine the comprehension of queries. In this world, a datatype is characterized by its algebra of value constructors. These algebras are principal. Query operators...»

«Luton Sixth Form College Newspaper March 2013 The mystery of the Bermuda triangle The Bermuda triangle, also known as the “Devil’s Triangle”, is one of the most mysterious places on earth. Despite the fact you won’t find it on any official map the Bermuda triangle is a real place where dozens of ships, people, and planes have disappeared without a trace. The Bermuda triangle is located off the South eastern coast of the United States in the Atlantic Ocean, with its apexes in the...»

«Counterfeit How ‘civil partnerships’ devalue the Marriage currency of marriage Christian influence in a secular world Counterfeit How ‘civil partnerships’ Marriage devalue the currency of marriage © The Christian Institute January 2002 26 Jesmond Road Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4PQ Tel. 0191 281 5664 Fax. 0191 281 4272 info@christian.org.uk www.christian.org.uk The Christian Institute is a Company Limited by Guarantee, registered in England as a Charity. Company No. 263 4440, Charity No...»

«CHAPTER 13 Deterrence of Cyber Attacks Richard L. Kugler CAN THE UNITED STATES hope to deter major cyber attacks on itself, its military forces, and its allies? Creating a cyber deterrence strategy is important because such attacks are becoming increasingly likely, because they could cause serious damage to America’s information networks and beyond, and because fully defending against them is problematic. If adversaries could be deterred from launching them, the United States would face fewer...»

«The Transformation and Development of Badminton as a Global Sport Dominated by Asian Players, Teams, Sponsors and Brands, 1893-2012: Multidisciplinary Perspectives Dr. Lim Peng Han, Visiting Research Fellow, Sports Centre, University of Malaya Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Salleh Aman, Director/Dean, Sports Centre, University of Malaya Abstract The game of badminton has grown to be a global sport dominated by Asian players, sponsors and Asian brands of badminton equipment. A series of...»

«For Im m ediate Release 31 January 2008 Cairn India Limited The enclosed Operational Announcement of Cairn Energy PLC, our majority shareholder, has been released to the London Stock Exchange today and accompanies this release. We are simultaneously releasing the same announcement to the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The financial results of Cairn India w ill be published separately as and w hen they are due under the listing agreement. EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE AT...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.