«MARK LATONERO, PhD—Fellow and Principal Investigator ZACHARY GOLD, JD—Research Analyst Introduction 1 See Big Data for Development: Opportunities ...»
Data, Human Rights & Human Security
MARK LATONERO, PhD—Fellow and Principal Investigator
ZACHARY GOLD, JD—Research Analyst
1 See Big Data for Development: Opportunities and Challenges, UN Global Pulse (2012), http://www.unglobalpulse.org/projects/BigDataforDevelopment; Disaster Relief
2.0, UN Foundation http://www.unfoundation.org/assets/pdf/disaster-relief-20-report.pdf; Key Resources, Data Pop Alliance,
Data, Human Rights & Human Security 2 harm— Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 3 Key Issues/Tensions
Accuracy, Validity, & Prediction:
How should data analytics be used to make decisions in human rights and security domains?
2 Responsible Development Data Book, Responsible Data Forum (2015), https://responsibledata.io/ways-to-practise-responsible-development-data/; Humanitarian Connectivity Charter, GSMA (2015), http://www.gsma.com/newsroom/press-release/gsma-launches-humanitarian-connectivity-charter/; Data-Driven Development, World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GAC/2013/Connect/WEF_GAC_Data-Driven_Development_2012-2014_Connect.pdf; See also, Resources, Responsible Data Forum, https://responsibledata.io/category/resources/.
3 See, e.g., Mark Leon Goldberg, How Big Data Can Put War Criminals Behind Bars, UN Dispatch (March 17, 2014), http://www.undispatch.com/we-gov-piece/.
4 Patrick Ball, Digital Echoes: Understanding Patterns of Mass Violence with Data and Statistics, Presented to a meeting at the Open Society Foundations, New York, NY (May 2015).
Risks, Harms, & Benefits:
What risks and benefits frameworks will guide decision makers about data-driven interventions?
5 Jay Ulfedlder, A New Statistical Approach to Assessing Risks of State-Led Mass Killing, Dart-Throwing Chimp, https://dartthrowingchimp.wordpress.com/2014/01/22/anew-statistical-approach-to-assessing-risks-of-state-led-mass-killing/.
6 Crisis in Darfur, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2009), http://www.ushmm.org/learn/mapping-initiatives/crisis-in-darfur.
7 Satellite Images of Aleppo, Now Half-Emptied, Show Devastation, Amnesty International (Aug. 7, 2013), https://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/satelliteimages-of-aleppo-now-half-emptied-show-devastation.
8 See generally, Christoph Koettl, Tech and Human Rights: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly, Amnesty International (March 19, 2015), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/europe/tech-and-human-rights-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly/.
9 The Syrian Conflict in a Connected World, Council on Foreign Relations (June 20, 2013), http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Syrian_Conflict_in_a_Connected_World_Rapporteur_Notes_7-2-13.pdf.
Balancing Immediate Threats & Values:
Should values like privacy fluctuate in the face of immediate threats?
10 Privacy Impact Assessments Official Guidelines, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (May 2007), http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_guidance_may2007.pdf.
11 Data Collection in Humanitarian Response, Responsible Data Forum, http://pqdl.care.org/Practice/Data%20Collection%20in%20Humanitarian%20Response,%20A%20Guide%20for%20Incorporating%20Protection.pdf.
12 For opinions on Ebola as a human security issue, see: Maryam Zarnegar Deloffre, Will AFRICOM’s Ebola response be watershed moment for international action on human security? The Washington Post (Sept. 29, 2014), http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/09/29/will-africoms-ebola-response-bewatershed-moment-for-international-action-on-human-security; Human Security in the Age of Ebola: Towards People-centered Global Governance, E-International Relations (Oct. 25, 2014), http://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/25/human-security-in-the-age-of-ebola-towards-people-centered-global-governance/.
Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 6
How will data collection and monitoring shape the practices of those that repress or advocate for human rights?
Governance & Accountability:
How can data regulation, policy, and standards effectively govern and provide accountability?
13 Sarah Brayne, Surveillance and System Avoidance, American Sociological Review (2014), available at, https://www.academia.edu/9565513/Surveillance_and_System_Avoidance_Criminal_Justice_Contact_and_Institutional_Attachment.
14 Darius Rejali, Torture and Democracy, Princeton University Press (2009).
15 An Invisible Threat: How Technology Can Hurt Human Rights Defenders, Amnesty International (Nov. 11, 2013), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/middle-east/an-invisiblethreat-how-technology-can-hurt-human-rights-defenders/.
Collecting, Sharing, & Security:
How should human rights and human security data be responsibly collected, stored, secured, and shared?
16 Twitter to the Rescue? How Social Media is Transforming Human Rights Monitoring, Amnesty International (Feb. 20, 2013), http://blog.amnestyusa.org/middleeast/twitter-to-the-rescue-how-social-media-is-transforming-human-rights-monitoring/.
17 Patrick Eggimann & Aurelia Tamò, Taming the Beast: Big Data and the Role of Law, Future of Privacy Forum, http://www.futureofprivacy.org/wpcontent/uploads/Eggimann-Tamo-Taming-the-Beast-Big-Data-and-the-Role-of-Law.pdf.
18 The Madrid Resolution, International Standards on the Protection of Personal Data and Privacy, International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (Nov. 5, 2009), http://privacyconference2011.org/htmls/adoptedResolutions/2009_Madrid/2009_M1.pdf.
19 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Human Rights Council (2015), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session29/Documents/A.HRC.29.32_AEV.doc.
20 Kelly J. O’Brien, How journalists should reframe the encryption debate, Columbia Journalism Review (Feb. 26, 2015), http://www.cjr.org/behind_the_news/how_journalists_are_fighting_t.php.
Aggregation vs. Identification:
How should the human rights and human security fields interact with data tools and techniques that can identify specific individuals at risk?
21 For the intersection between cyber-warfare and humanitarian action see UNOCHA https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/Humanitarianism%20in%20the%20Cyberwarfare%20Age%20-%20OCHA%20Policy%20Paper%2011.pdf.
22 Fred H. Cate & Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Notice and consent in a world of Big Data, 3 Int’l Data Privacy Law, Issue 2 (2013), http://idpl.oxfordjournals.org/content/3/2/67.abstract.
23 Kathy Wren, Big Data and Human Rights, a New and Sometimes Awkward Relationship, AAAS (Jan. 28, 2015), http://www.aaas.org/news/big-data-and-human-rightsnew-and-sometimes-awkward-relationship (Samir Goswami, director of Government Professional Solutions at LexisNexis, discussing the problems of informed consent and unknown future uses of data in human rights).
24 Patrick Ball, When It Comes to Human Rights, There Are No Online Security Shortcuts, Wired (Aug. 10, 2012), http://www.wired.com/2012/08/wired_opinion_patrick_ball/all/.
25 Users of Tor, Tor, https://www.torproject.org/about/torusers.html.en.
Context & Power Dynamics:
Can general guidelines and principles be established for data interventions whose social applications are deeply contextual and enmeshed in power relationships?
26 Michael Stohl & Cynthia Stohl, Human Rights, Nation States, and NGOs: Structural Holes and the Emergence of Global Regimes, 72 Communication Monographs 4 (2005), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03637750500322610?journalCode=rcmm20.
27 Stefaan Verhulst, Crowdsourcing the monitoring of human rights violations, Govlab (March 26, 2013), http://thegovlab.org/crowdsourcing-the-monitoring-of-humanrights-violations; Checklists for verifying user-generated content, Responsible Data Forum, https://responsibledata.io/checklists-for-verifying-user-generated-content/.
28 Remote Sensing for Human Rights, Amnesty International, http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/science-for-human-rights/remote-sensing-for-human-rights.
29 Political Terror Scale, http://www.politicalterrorscale.org/.
30 CIRI Human Rights Data Project, http://www.humanrightsdata.com/.
31 Publications, Human Rights Data Analysis Group, https://hrdag.org/publications/.
32 Human Rights Coverage Over Time: A Tutorial in Automated Text Analysis, D-Lab, http://dlab.berkeley.edu/blog/human-rights-coverage-over-time-tutorialautomated-text-analysis.
33 Early Warning Project, http://www.earlywarningproject.com/.
34 Erik Voeten, Can forecasting conflict help to make better foreign policy decisions?, The Monkey Cage (July 28, 2013), http://themonkeycage.org/2013/07/28/32299/;
Jay Ulfelder, Yes, Forecasting Conflict Can Help Make Better Foreign Policy Decisions, Dart-Throwing Chimp, https://dartthrowingchimp.wordpress.com/2013/07/29/yesforecasting-conflict-can-help-make-better-foreign-policy-decisions/; Lilli Japec, Frauke Kreuter, et al., AAPOR Report on Big Data, American Association for Public Opinion Research (Feb. 12, 2015), https://www.aapor.org/AAPORKentico/AAPOR_Main/media/Task-Force-Reports/BigDataTaskForceReport_FINAL_2_12_15_b.pdf;
Seth Young, Sloan Foundation funds Ethics in Data Research exploratory project, Data & Society (May 19, 2015), http://www.datasociety.net/blog/2015/05/19/sloanfoundation-funds-ethics-in-data-research-exploratory-project; Council for Big Data, Ethics, and Society, http://bdes.datasociety.net/.
35 See University of Leiden Peace Informatics Lab, http://www.peaceinformaticslab.org/.
36 For more on the “Ruggie principles,” see, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner (2011), http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf.
37 See Matt Stempeck, Sharing Data Is a Form of Corporate Philanthropy, Harvard Business Review (July 24, 2014), https://hbr.org/2014/07/sharing-data-is-a-form-ofcorporate-philanthropy; Responsible Data Forum on Private Sector Data Sharing, UN Global Pulse, Data & Society, & The Engine Room (2014), available at Data & Society Research Institute www.datasociety.net Data, Human Rights & Human Security 13
Governments and Intergovernmental Organizations
http://www.datasociety.net/blog/2014/08/25/responsible-data-forum-on-private-sector-data-sharing/; Robert Kirkpatrick, A New Type of Philanthropy: Donating Data, Harvard Business Review (March 21, 2013), http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/03/a-new-type-of-philanthropy-don/.
38 Center for Business and Human Rights, New York University, http://www.stern.nyu.edu/experience-stern/about/departments-centers-initiatives/centers-ofresearch/business-and-human-rights. See also, Data Governance Project, University of Leiden Peace Informatics Lab, www.peaceinformaticslab.org/data-governanceproject.
39 See Kentaro Toyama, Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change from the Cult of Technology (2015), http://geekheresy.org/.
Beneficiaries 40 Intellectual Property and Human Rights, World Intellectual Property Organization & the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Nov. 9, 1998), http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/intproperty/762/wipo_pub_762.pdf.
41 Erick Voeten, Can forecasting conflict help to make better foreign policy decisions? The Monkey Cage (July 28, 2013), http://themonkeycage.org/2013/07/28/32299/.
Next Steps 42 Technology and Human Trafficking Initiative, USC Annenberg Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, https://technologyandtrafficking.usc.edu/.
43 Responsible Data Forum on Private Sector Data Sharing-Event Summary, United Nations Global Pulse (Aug. 25, 2014), http://www.unglobalpulse.org/RDF-privatesector-data-summary. See also, The Data Collaboratives: Exchanging Data to Improve People’s Lives, NYU GovLab, http://thegovlab.org/datacollaboratives/.
44 Deji Olukotun, personal communication, June 17, 2015.
Data & Society is a research institute in New York City that is focused on social, cultural, and ethical issues arising from datacentric technological development. To provide frameworks that can help address emergent tensions, D&S is committed to identifying issues at the intersection of technology and society, providing research that can ground public debates, and building a network of researchers and practitioners that can offer insight and direction. To advance public understanding of the issues, D&S brings together diverse constituencies, hosts events, conducts directed research, creates policy frameworks, and builds demonstration projects that grapple with the challenges and opportunities of a data-saturated world.
For more on Data & Society’s Program on Data, Human Rights, & Human Security see http://www.datasociety.net/initiatives/additional-projects/data-human-rights/.
Acknowledgments Laura Seago made important contributions to this primer. Alex Rosenblat, Alexandra Mateescu, Angie Waller, and Seth Young provided key assistance and the fellows, staff, and leadership and Data & Society gave invaluable feedback. Jos Berens, Theresa Harris, Deji Olukotun, Kristin Antin, Danna Ingleton, Keith Hiatt, and Corrine Cath graciously reviewed early drafts of this work.