FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 16 |

«The Russian Federation has a centralized political system, with power concentrated in a president and a prime minister, a weak multiparty political ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

Rape is illegal, and the law makes no distinctions based on the relationship between the rapist and the victim. Spousal or acquaintance rape was not widely perceived as a problem by society or law enforcement authorities. Women were unlikely to report cases of rape by persons they knew. According to NGOs, many women did not report rape or other violence due to social stigma and lack of government support. Rape victims may act as full legal parties in criminal cases brought against alleged assailants and may seek compensation as part of a court verdict without initiating a separate civil action. While members of the medical profession assisted assault victims and sometimes helped identify an assault or rape case, doctors were often reluctant to provide testimony in court. According to the MVD, 4,624 rapes or attempted rapes were committed in the first 11 months of the year, a 6.1percent decrease from 2009.

The penalty for rape is three to six years' imprisonment for a single offender, and four to 10 years if the crime is committed by a group of persons. The perpetrator receives eight to 15 years if a victim is underage, and 12 to 20 years if a victim


died or was under 14 years of age. According to NGOs, law enforcement personnel and prosecutors did not consider spousal or acquaintance rape a priority and did not encourage reporting or prosecuting such cases. NGOs reported that local police officers sometimes refused to respond to rape or domestic violence calls until the victim’s life was directly threatened.

Domestic violence remained a major problem. As of March 2009, the Ministry of Interior maintained records on more than four million perpetrators of domestic violence. The Duma's Committee on Social Defense reported that there were 21,400 murders during the year, two-thirds of which were of women who died in domestic disputes, up 50 percent since 2002. The Interior Ministry reported that at least 34,000 women were domestic violence victims each year, meaning a woman died every 40 minutes at the hands of a husband, boyfriend, or other family member. However, the reluctance of victims to report domestic violence meant that reliable statistical information on its scope was impossible to obtain. Official telephone directories contained no information on crisis centers or shelters. There are only about 25 women's shelters across Russia, with beds for a total of about 200 women, according to Moscow's Anna National Center for the Prevention of Violence.

There is no legal definition of domestic violence. Federal law prohibits battery, assault, threats, and killing, but most acts of domestic violence did not fall within the jurisdiction of the Prosecutor's Office. According to a March 2009 study by the Smolensk-based Center for Women's Support, police often provided lackluster and inadequate responses to calls reporting domestic violence, at times suggesting that cases wait until morning. According to NGOs, police were often unwilling to register complaints of domestic violence and frequently discouraged victims from submitting them. A majority of cases filed were either dismissed on technical grounds or transferred to a reconciliation process conducted by a justice of the peace, whose focus was on preserving the family rather than punishing the perpetrator. Civil remedies for domestic violence included administrative fines and divorce. The Center for Women's Support asserted that many perpetrators of domestic violence themselves belonged to law enforcement agencies.

Female inmates in the prison system faced particular challenges. According to the NGO Penal Reform International (PRI), as of April there were approximately 864,000 female inmates in 45 special prison colonies and detention centers.

Although these inmates faced the same poor living conditions as male prisoners,


the PRI reported that in prison women had much less access to health care programs for tuberculosis or substance abuse treatment.

Human Rights Watch reports that "honor killings" were a continuing problem in some areas, such as the Caucasus, although it was difficult to estimate an exact number of victims.

Some observers noted that the country was a destination for sex tourism. Police worked closely with at least one foreign government to ensure the prosecution of sex tourists.

The law does not prohibit sexual harassment, which remained a widespread problem. NGOs operating hotlines reported that women routinely sought advice on the problem. The lack of legal remedies and limited economic opportunities caused many women to tolerate harassment. Authorities have successfully prosecuted only two sexual harassment cases since 1992.

The government officially recognized the basic right of couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children.

While there are no legal restrictions on access to contraceptives, some reproductive rights advocates reported that the atmosphere for their work was difficult.

International family planning organizations were unable to operate in the face of opposition from the government and from the Orthodox Church, making access to family planning limited, especially outside of big cities. The government explicitly encourages women to have as many children as possible to counteract the country's demographic problems (the country's population has declined by six million since the end of the Soviet Union). According to UN estimates, the maternal mortality ratio in the country was 39 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008. Men and women received equal access to diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Although the constitution states that men and women have equal rights and opportunities to pursue those rights, women encountered discrimination in employment. Job advertisements often specified gender and age groups. Some even specified desired physical appearance and preference for applicants who were open to intimate relations with their prospective supervisors. Employers often preferred to hire men to save on maternity and childcare costs and avoid the perceived unreliability associated with women with small children. The labor market was characterized by gender discrimination in compensation, professional


training, hiring and dismissal, and career promotion. However, such discrimination was often very difficult to prove. According to both RosStat, the federal state statistics service, and the Center for Labor Studies (of the Higher School of Economics), in 2007 women earned 35 percent less than men, although some more recent studies have provided a lower estimate. There is no government office devoted to women's legal rights. The women's rights NGO Peterburgskaya Egida reported that instances of pregnant women or those with children under three years of age being fired by their employers and denied social allowances increased in recent years.

The 2002 census indicated that 62 percent of women in the country had higher education, compared to 50 percent of men, and that women made up more than 50 percent of university tutors and professors. Women ran approximately 30 percent of medium-sized businesses and 10 percent of big businesses in the country. A March 2009 study by Price-Waterhouse-Coopers (PWC) found that the number of women taking managerial positions had grown from 30 to 40 percent since the onset of the economic crisis. Another PWC poll revealed that 90 percent of chief accountants, 70 percent of human resources senior managers, and 50 percent of chief financial officers were women. In May 2009 the Supreme Court rejected a St.

Petersburg woman's appeal to drive metro trains; she had filed a discrimination suit after being turned down for the job because of her gender. Article 253 of the labor code specifies that female workers should not perform "hard physical jobs and jobs with harmful or dangerous labor conditions, or work underground except in nonphysical jobs or sanitary and consumer services." According to the NGO Peterburgskaya Egida, this article had resulted in a list of 456 professions that legally exclude women, including diver, gas rescue worker, paratrooper, and firefighter. Women made up approximately 10 percent of the workforce of the federal and regional governments.

Although polygamy is illegal, the Chechen government has encouraged men to take more than one wife, has encouraged women and girls to wear headscarves when in public (schools, universities, and government offices), and threatened the jobs of some unmarried women, should they choose to stay single. According to NGOs, bride kidnapping was another prevalent practice in the North Caucasus.

Backed by local ancient tradition, it had reportedly grown as an acceptable reason to abduct and rape young women, whether they were returned to their families married or not. Often in these cases, the young women are forever "sullied" as they are no longer virgins and cannot enter a legitimate marriage.


In June HRW received credible reports of individuals, including law enforcement agents, pelting uncovered women on the streets of Grozniy with paintball guns and threatening future brutality should they not cover themselves. At least one of the women had to be hospitalized as a result. In an interview with the television station Grozny on July 3, Chechen President Kadyrov expressed unambiguous approval of this practice by professing his readiness to "award a commendation" to the men who engaged in these activities. In August HRW reported receiving numerous accounts of the harassment of women in the streets of the capital by groups of men claiming to represent the Islamic High Council (muftiat) of the republic. They reportedly were joined by young men who pulled on the women's sleeves, skirts, and hair and accused them of being dressed like harlots. In two instances reported to HRW, members of Chechen law enforcement bodies were among the perpetrators.


By law citizenship is derived from parents at birth or from birth within the country's territory if the parents are unknown or if the child cannot claim the parents' citizenship. As a rule all newly born babies are registered at the local civil registry office where parents live. One of the parents must apply for registration within a month of the birth date, and on the basis of the medical certificate of the hospital where the baby was born, a birth certificate is issued.

Although education was free to grade 11 and compulsory until age 15 or 16, regional authorities frequently denied school access to the children of persons not registered as residents of the locality, including Roma, asylum seekers, and migrants.

Child abuse was a widespread problem. In June 2009 the Duma passed a law that increased the maximum sentence for rape of a minor to 20 years. It also increased the penalties for child molestation and the distribution of child pornography. The law specifies that the maximum penalty for child molestation, if certain aggravating factors are present, is 20 years and for the distribution of child pornography, up to 10 years if aggravating factors are present.

Children, particularly the homeless and orphans, were exploited for child pornography. While authorities working on the issue viewed child pornography as a serious problem, the law prohibiting it lacked important details, and authorities seldom invoked it. The law does not define child pornography, criminalize its


possession, or provide for effective investigation and prosecution of cases of child pornography. Courts often dismissed criminal cases because of the lack of clear standards. When a court convicted a suspect, it frequently imposed the minimum sentence, often probation. Authorities investigated and prosecuted relatively few cases involving child pornography, creating an environment in which it proliferated.

In 2008, the latest year for which figures were available, authorities registered 356 cases of the distribution of child pornography, opened preliminary investigations into 159 (an increase of 17.6 percent over the previous year), and brought indictments in 157. In 2009 the number of investigations increased to 259.

However, an MVD official noted that, while the performance of MVD officers investigating pornography had improved, the trade in child pornography remained strong. In March an MVD spokesman stated that a hotline for reporting instances of child pornography received 10,000 calls in 2009, leading to the shutdown of 3,000 distribution channels, including 300 shut down outside the country by cooperating foreign law enforcement agencies.

The government has created two federal resources to respond to the threat of child pornography through the Internet: the Russian Safer Internet Center, established in 2008 with a hotline to receive information on illegal content sources, and the Friendly Runet Foundation created in 2009 with the direct participation of the Interior Ministry, which also has a hotline for reporting Internet sources with illegal content.

In 2009 NGOs began a project entitled, Prevention of Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Russian Federation, with support from the European Commission.

The three-year project is a joint initiative led by the Syostry call center in Moscow, the Perm Center for Violence Prevention, and the Far Eastern Center in Support of Social Initiatives in the Russian Far East, which intended to put in place a system for training social workers, police, and educators in their regions on the prevention of violence against children, the provision of support for victims, and the early identification of sexual violence.

Citing MVD statistics, a Public Chamber representative said in May that each year nearly 120,000 children were orphaned, and each day, 200-220 were taken away from neglectful parents. The representative estimated that 600,000 children were located in different types of institutional and foster care. In a 2008 report, the NGO Children's Rights estimated that approximately 40,000 children ran away from


home annually to escape abuse and neglect and that 20,000 orphans fled similar conditions in orphanages. The report, as updated in February 2009, corroborated the MVD statistics of approximately 120,000 new orphans every year.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 16 |

Similar works:

«POLICY ISSUE NOTATION VOTE November 26, 2012 SECY-12-0157 FOR: The Commissioners FROM: R. W. Borchardt Executive Director for Operations SUBJECT: CONSIDERATION OF ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING SYSTEMS FOR BOILING WATER REACTORS WITH MARK I AND MARK II CONTAINMENTS PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with information, options, and a recommendation from the NRC staff to impose new requirements for containment venting...»

«Namibian diplomacy before Independence Chris Saunders* Before a country gains its independence, it cannot have a foreign policy of its own. Under South African occupation from 1915 to March 1990, Namibia featured prominently in the foreign policy of the occupying power, South Africa, and many South African diplomats and Ministers of Foreign Affairs spent much of their time in diplomatic activity relating to the question of the future of South West Africa/Namibia. Namibia was RF (Pik) Botha’s...»

«Manual Eva Schiffer International Food Policy Research Institute Presented at the Sunbelt Conference of the International Network of Social Network Analysis, 01-06 May 2007, Corfu, Greece Error! Bookmark not defined. Introduction 1. Ways in which the Net-Map toolbox can be used 1.1 Preparing and monitoring policy interventions 1.2 Improving and coordinating multistakeholder governance 1.3 Facilitating inclusive community-based projects 1.4 Sketching and discussing hands-on interventions for...»

«Questions and Answers for Consumers Automobile Insurance Reform: Phase 2 General Questions about Phase 2 Reforms Why is the government so interested in reforming auto insurance? Auto insurance had not had a comprehensive review for several years. Consumers raised several concerns regarding automobile insurance that we believed needed to be reviewed and addressed. What are the major reforms planned for Phase 2?The second phase of reforms includes:  Direct Compensation for Property Damage,...»

«SOCIAL THOUGHT & COMMENTARY Torophies and Torphobes: The Politics of Bulls and Bullfights in Contemporary Spain Stanley Brandes University of California, Berkeley Abstract Although the bullfight as a public spectacle extends throughout southwestern Europe and much of Latin America, it attains greatest political, cultural, and symbolic salience in Spain. Yet within Spain today, the bullfight has come under serious attack, from at least three sources: (1) Catalan nationalists, (2) Spaniards who...»

«OF CONSUMMATION, MATRIMONIAL PROMISES, FAULT, AND PARALLEL WIVES: THE ROLE OF ORIGINAL TEXTS, INTERPRETATION, IDEOLOGY AND POLICY IN PREAND POST-1962 BURMESE CASE LAW Myint Zan* I. INTRODUCTION A. Burmese Buddhist Law / Burmese Customary Law.155 B. The Dhammathats C. Case Law D. 1962 as “Dividing Line II. CONSUMMATION A. The Issue B. The Ruling in Ma Hla Me C. The Overruling of Ma Hla Me 1. Origin and Hierarchy of “Original Texts”.165 2. (Inconsistency in and (Mis)Interpretation of...»

«CLIENT MEMORANDUM Recent European Compensation Developments: Financial Institutions and Beyond April 23, 2013 Almost half a decade after the onset of the financial crisis, populist sentiment and the resulting political environment continue to fuel stricter regulation of executive and director compensation, with the latest wave in Europe including substantive restrictions on compensation in the financial services industry and “say-on-pay” initiatives (i.e., initiatives providing for...»

«DANISH FOREIGN POLICY YEARBOOK EDITED BY NANNA HVIDT AND HANS MOURITZEN DIIS · DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DANISH FOREIGN POLICY YEARBOOK EDITED BY NANNA HVIDT AND HANS MOURITZEN DIIS DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES Copenhagen 2007 Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS Strandgade 56, DK-1401 Copenhagen, Denmark Ph: +45 32 69 87 87 Fax: +45 32 69 87 00 E-mail: diis@diis.dk Web: www.diis.dk Editors: Nanna Hvidt and Hans Mouritzen Layout: Carsten Schiøler...»

«THE END OF WORK OTHER BOOKS BY JEREMY RIFKIN Common Sense II Own Your Own Job Who Should Play God (with Ted Howard) The Emerging Order The North Will Rise Again (with Randy Barber) Entropy (with Ted Howard) Algeny Declaration of a Heretic Time Wars Biosphere Politics Beyond Beef Voting Green (with Carol Grunewald) • • • THE END OF WORK The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era JEREMY RIFKIN A Jeremy P. TarcherlPutnam Book published by G. P. Putnam's Sons...»

«The Data Protection Act 1998 The Freedom of Information Act 2000 Environmental Information Regulations 2004 This instruction applies to:Reference:NOMS HQ AI 28/2014 Prisons PSI 44/2014 National Probation Service PI 61/2014 Issue Date Effective Date Expiry Date Implementation Date 12 December 2014 12 December 2014 11 December 2018 NOMS Agency Board Issued on the authority of All staff responsible for the development and publication of policy and For action by instructions: NOMS HQ Public Sector...»

«AUGUST 2015 GENERATION RENT A New Deal for Renters and Landlords Fianna Fáil Policy Document BARRY COWEN TD FIANNA FÁIL SPOKESPERSON ON ENVIRONMENT & LOCAL GOVERNMENT GENERATION RENT A New Deal for Renters and Landlords Executive Summary Fianna Fáil proposes a bold 3 step new deal for renters and landlords based on Tenants Rights and Rent Certainty, Quality of Accommodation and Encouraging Investment: These plans will help create a stable, viable rental market for over 457,000 tenants and...»

«Policy Manual Compliments, Feedback and Complaints Policy Policy Owner: Customer Relations Contact Person: Customer Liaison Officer Date of Approval: 6 March 2012 Res. No: CB01-03/12 POLICY OBJECTIVE The purpose of this policy is to provide a framework to guide the City of Wanneroo in its management and handling of compliments, feedback and complaints.POLICY STATEMENT The City of Wanneroo is committed to managing compliments, feedback and complaints in a consistent and unbiased manner that...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.